I. Country Overview
A. Factual data
Neighboring countries: Germany is bordered to the north by Denmark; to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic; to the south by Austria and Switzerland; and to the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Nearby bodies of water: It is bordered to the north by the North sea and the Baltic sea. Population: The population of Germany is approximately 81,880,000, making it the 14th most populous country in the world. Germany's population is characterized by zero or declining growth, with an aging population and smaller cohort of youths. Population density: In 2010 the population density of Germany was 229 people/km². Land area: Germany is made up of sixteen Länder (singular Land, colloquially but rarely in a legal context also called Bundesland, for "federated state") which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany.The Federal Republic of Germany covers an area of approximately 357,000 square kilometers. The land area is divided into agricultural land - approximately 54.1%, forest - approximately 29.4% and built up areas - approximately 11.8%. Natural resources in Germany are coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber and arable land Main industries and locations within country:
- Manufacturing is the foundation of Germany’s economy. It belongs to the G-7 group, which represents the seven richest nations in the world. Germany has several major manufacturing regions. The Ruhr is the most important industrial regions and one of the busiest in the world. It includes the Dortmand, Duisburg, and the Dussel-dorf. It produces most of the nations iron and steel. Much of Germany’s steel is used to make automobile, ships, and tools. - Germany’s main industrial regions are the Ruhr, an area of coal mines and steel mills along the Ruhr River in North Rhine-Westphalia; Bremen and Hamburg, have huge shipbuilding yards; Bavaria in the south, where many plants for the manufacture of automobiles and stereo equipment are located; and Dresden, which has power plant and a growing electronic industry. - West Germany has a high reputation in the world for the excellent design and fine workmanship of products such as the BMW, Volkswagen, and Mercedes-Benz cars. East Germany did not come close to West Germany’s technology development or its industrial production. New programs were designed to bring manufacturing in the East up to the standards of the West. Many factories are being modernized and workers are receiving training in computer technology and other modern manufacturing. - Germany imports most of it materials and energy sources. Its steel industry is near these areas. It also has small amounts of iron ore, petroleum, and natural gas. - The chemical industry is one of Germany’s most important and includes companies like Bayer, BASF, and Hoechst. Machine and vehicle construction is another major industry, which includes aircraft manufacture, shipbuilding, plant machinery, and automobiles. - Electrical engineering, electronics, and office equipment are growing industries. While many industries are successful, traditional heavy industries like steel and shipbuilding are suffering a major decline. Competition from the Japanese and new technology are now reducing the profits from German production. The addition of the former East German population to the market economy has put the whole business in trouble. -Wholesale trade continues in Germany, although many small businesses have gone out of business because they were unable to offer the services and discounts of larger services. Retail turnover has been growing and self-service operations have replaced more traditional trade outlets. - Foreign trade has been a major cause in Germany’s economic success. Machinery, motor vehicles, chemical products, precision and optical goods, and electrical engineering goods are its main...