German Filology

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66.ablaut ehk apofoonia (grammatiline ja leksikaalne vokaalivaheldus) * The term Ablaut was coined by Jacob Grimm (1785–1863) * Gradation affects the IE vowels e and o
* e-grade (full grade)
* o-grade
* zero grade (ø)
* gradation in Indo-European: e – o – ø – ø
* (cf Eng pedal vs podium)
* gradation in Germanic: i – a – ø – ø
* (cf Eng sing vs sang/song
* 1) qualitative gradation
* (change of vowel quality)
* 2) quantitative gradation
* (change of vowel quantity, both e and o can occur as long ē and ō, in which case the term lengthened grade is used, cf Eng tripod and foot)
67.esimene häälikunihe (Grimmi seadus)
The first consonant shift separates the subfamily of Germanic languages from the other Indo-European languages. The shift operated during the period of Common Germanic (ca 1,000 B.C.) Proto-Indo-European was rich in stop consonants. There were at least three series of them: 1) unvoiced series| p, t, k, kw|

2) voiced series| b,d,g,gw|
3) voiced aspirate series| bh,dh,gh,gwh|
the unvoiced stops became the corresponding unvoiced fricatives
the voiced stops became the corresponding unvoiced stops:
the voiced aspirate stops became the corresponding voiced stops
68.minevikuoleviku verbid-?
69.omadussõnade tugev ja nõrk käänamisviis
e.g. OE gōd mann (= a good person)

The weak declension was used when the adjective followed
1) a demonstrative
e.g. OE sē gōda mann (= the good person)
2) a possessive (OE mīn, etc)

Nowadays the strong and weak declension of adjectives can be found in Scandinavian languages: Swedish:
STRONG DECLENSION en god vän ‘a good friend’
WEAK DECLENSION min goda vän ‘my good friend’
The weak adjective declension is used in attributive position with definitive reference, i.e. if the substantive has the definite article , or is modified with a genitive form of another substantive/pronoun etc , with proper names , in indirect address , or in constructions with the free definite article , demonstrative or possessive pronouns. In other cases the strong declension of the adjective is used, e.g. in predicative position or in attributive position if the substantive does not have a definite article

The comparative adjective ends in –ra and is declined according to the weak declension. The superlative normally ends in –ost and may be declined both strong and weak. positive| comparative| superlative|

blind (=blind)| blindra| blindost|
hālig (= holy)| hāligra| hāl(i)gost|

71.teine häälikunihe
The Second Consonant Shift
The second consonant shift operated in Old High German from the 5th to the 7th centuries.

1) The unvoiced stops t,p,k after vowels changed into the corresponding fricatives: 2) The unvoiced stops t,p,k at the beginning of the word, after consonants, and if geminated changed into the corresponding affricates:

3) The voiced stops d,b,g changed into the corresponding unvoiced stops

72.tugevad ja nõrgad nimisõnad
Nouns were divided into
VOWEL STEMS (the case endings were added to a stem ending in a vowel) = strong declensions
CONSONANT STEMS (a stem ending in a consonant) = weak declensions STRONG DECLENSIONS
1) a- nouns (masculine and neuter)
2) ō-nouns (feminine
3) i-nouns (masculine, feminine, neuter)
4) u-nouns (masculine and feminine)


73.tugevad ja nõrgad tegusõnad- A strong verb has four stems or principal forms: 1) the infinitive, 2) the past tense, first person singular, 3) the past tense, first person plural, 4) the past participle.

74.tugevate tegusõnade liigitus (7 klassi)
* Classes of strong verbs (7 conjugations)
* A strong verb has four stems or principal forms: 1) the infinitive, * 2) the...
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