Geomorphology: Climate World Climate

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  • Topic: Climate, Earth, Arctic Circle
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  • Published : October 14, 2010
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GEOMORPHOLOGY : THE STUDY OF THE CONFIGURATION OF THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH RELATED TERMS :

• PHYSIOGRAPHY

• RELIEF

• TOPOGRAPHY

• LANDFORMS

• LANDSCAPES

SURFACE FEATURES

EARTH = 2 PRINCIPAL PARTS

1. 1/3 LAND (CONSISTS OF FOUR LARGE LAND MASSES DIVIDED INTO SEVEN CONTINENTS & THOUSANDS OF SMALLER LAND MASSES

2. 2/3 WATER (FOUR MAJOR OCEANS & HUNDREDS OF SMALLER BODIES OF WATER

CONTINENTS (by the number of countries)

#1 Africa - (53)
#2 Asia - (47)
#3 Europe - (43)
#4 North America - (23)
#5 Oceania - (14)
#6 South America - (12)

Americas
(42,075,000 sq km) (825,000,000)
Eurasia
(54,697,000 sq km) (4,406,000,000)

Convert km (kilometers) to miles,
....multiply kilometers by: 0.621371

Convert sq km (kilometers) to sq miles,
.....multiply kilometers by: 0.386102

MAJOR PROCESSES

• DIASTROPHISM

• VOLCANISM

• GLACIATIONS

• GRADATION

• PLATE TECTONICS

DIASTROPHISM: THE BENDING, WARPING OR FOLDING OF THE EARHT’S CRUST; Large-scale deformation of the Earth's crust by natural processes, which leads to the formation of continents and ocean basins, mountain systems and rift valleys, and other features by mechanisms such as lithospheric plate movement, volcanic loading, or folding.

WARPING : GENTLE BENDING OF THE EARTH’S CRUST

• FOLDING : MORE INTENSE, CREATES AN ACCORDION-LIKE SERIES OF FOLDS; ALSO CALLED “VALLEY & RIDGE TOPOGRAPHY”; COMPRESSION OF THE EARTH’S CRUSTDUE TO THE COLLISION OF PLATES, RESULTING INTO THE FORMATION OF MOUNTAINS.

➢ ANTICLINE = UPWARD ARCH

➢ SYNCLINE = DOWNWARD ARCH

• FAULTING : BREAK OR FRACTURE IN THE EARTH’S CRUST CAUSING TREMORS & EARTHQUAKES

VOLCANISM: POURING OUT OF MOLTEN MATERIALS FROM CRACKS IN THE EARTH

• INTRUSIVE: MOLTEN MATERIALS SOLIDIFY BEFORE REACHING THE EARTH’S SURFACE

• EXTRUSIVE: MOLTEN MATERIALS SOLIDIFY ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE

GLACIATIONS: MOVEMENTS OF CONTINENTAL ICE & SNOW; SCOURS & SHAPES TOPOGRAPHY (ROLLING HILLS, WATERFALLS, LAKES, SWAMPS, U-SHAPED VALLEYS)

GRADATIONAL PROCESSES: BRINGS ABOUT A “UNIFORM PLAIN” BY WEARING DOWN HIGH PLACES (EROSION & WEATHERING) & FILLING IN LOW PLACES (DEPOSITION).

1. WEATHERING: THE BREAKING UP OF ROCKS INTO SMALL PIECES EITHER BY

• MECHANICAL WEATHERING: INFLUENCE OF FORCE & PRESSURE FROM HEATING & COOLING, GROWTH OF FROST CRYSTALS, BURROWING ANIMALS, & PLANT ROOTS GROWING INTO ROCK LAYERS

• CHEMICAL WEATHERING: USING WATER THAT REACTS WITH THE CHEMICALS IN THE ROCKS.

2. EROSION : WEARING AWAY THE EARTH’S SURFACE BY WATER, WIND OR ICE

3. DEPOSITION: THE TRANSPORT & EVENTUAL DEPOSITING OF SMALL PARTICLES OF SOIL & ROCK, FORMING RIVER DELTAS, ALLUVIAL PLAINS & LOESS

PLATE TECTONICS:

PLATES: SECTIONS MAKING UP THE EARTH’S CRUST

TECTONIC FORCES: FORCES CAUSING INTERNAL MOVEMENTS OF THE EARTH AS PORTIONS OF ITS MANTLE & CRUST ARE SLOW-MOVING PLATES; RESPONSIBLE FOR MOUNTAIN BUILDING, VOLCANOES & EARTHQUAKES

EARTH’S GEOLOGIC HISTORY:

PANGAEA (SPLIT-UP) = GONDWANALAND & LAURASIA

CLIMATE

• THE AVERAGE OF ALL WEATHER CONDITIONS IN AN AREA OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME . .“CONSTANT”

• REVEALS MOST COMMON CONDITIONS, OR EXTREMES, OR FREQUENCIES

• WEATHER = SMALLER PICTURE/SEGMENT OF CLIMATE

= STATE OF THE ATMOSPHERE; TEMPORARY; CHANGEABLE; SHORT PERIOD

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CLIMATE

1. WINDS

• MOST IMPT. FUNCTION IN THE ATMOSPHERE = MOVE EXCESS HEAT FROM THE TROPICS TOWARDS THE POLES; MOVE WATER VAPOR FROM ABOVE OCEANS TOWARDS LAND

2. OCEAN CURRENTS

• MOTION OF WATER; PERSISTENT & LARGE-SCALE HORIZONTAL FLOW OF OCEAN WATER, DRIVEN BY ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION (PULLED ALONG BY WINDS)

• DISTRIBUTES HEAT ENERGY

3....
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