*E. both A and D are correct
2. The theory that tries to explain the origin of the universe revolves around the idea that __________. *B. the original black hole exploded and scattered clouds of uncharged particles moving at high velocities
3. What was the first element formed during the creation of the universe? *B. hydrogen
4. Our solar system was created by:
*A. the contraction of clouds of elements originally formed by the explosion of supernovas
5. Approximately how old is our universe?
*A. 13.7 billion years old
6. Heat is being continuously released within the Earth through the process of: *C. elements releasing subatomic particles and losing mass
7. Which of the following minerals does not belong with the others? A. pyrite
*E. they all belong together
8. An earthquake is detected off the coast of Vancouver Island. Which statement is most correct *B. S-waves are detected after P-waves
9. In an area of the crust with an average geothermal gradient (from course manual), what would the temperature be 22km below the surface, if the surface temperature is 25°C? *D. 685°C
10. The Hawaiian Island chain was formed by which one of the following processes? *C. movement of the Pacific plate over a stationary mantle plume causing the formation of a string of volcanoes
11. The Himalayas developed directly from the process of ________: *E. plate collision
12. Intermediate sized tectonic plates include which of the following? A. Nazca
D. all of the above
*E. only A, C, and D
13. The floor of the Atlantic is widening: why then is there a ridge in the middle? *B. volcanism
14. How much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of 50g of water by 10°C? *B. 500 calories
15. Match the following item with the closest related phrase. Continental Rift
A. East Pacific Rise
B. subduction zone
C. Canadian Shield
*D. Mount Kilimanjaro
E. Mount St. Helens
18. Earth’s crust is being destroyed at _______ and created at ________. *C. subduction zones, divergent boundaries
19. A felsic rock is formed at relatively ________ temperatures and is the first to ________ when temperature increases during burial.
*A. low, melt
21. Native metals tend to have which of the following properties? A. high plasticity
B. only one type of bonding
C. good electrical conductivity
*D. all of the above
22. A mineral composed of weak bonds, tends to have the following characteristics: A. high solubility
C. has mostly ionic bonds
D. has mostly covalent bonds
E. only A and C are correct
*F. A, B and C are all correct
23. What is the most common group of minerals found in Earth’s crust? *B. silicate minerals
24. Which minerals have similar structure but different composition? *D. albite and anorthite
26. A(n) _______ magma is relatively high in _________.
A. andesitic; Fe, Mg and Ca
B.basaltic; K and Na
*C. rhyolitic; K and Na
D. granitic; Fe and Mg
27. When magma cools, which atoms tend to bond first?
*D. silicon and oxygen
28. Which of the following statements is true?
*D. the main reason for volatiles in magma to be released is a sudden decrease in confining pressure.
29. This question refers to radioactive decay. What is the parent/daughter ratio after two half-lives? *A. 1:3
30. Which of the following terms does not belong with the other? A. quartz
31. An igneous rock that cools rapidly at the Earth’s surface has which of the following textures? C. aphanitic
*E. both C and D are possible
32. Igneous rocks are classified by their ______.
*D. all of the above
33. When the Earth was relatively new, what gases were present in the atmosphere? *A....