Geology Course Notes

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January 09, 2013 Discussion Notes
Scientific Method
1. Observation
2. Formulate a question
3. Hypothesis (educated guess)
4. Test the Hypothesis
How to test for cause/type of volcano?
1. Meteor impact will cause movement and depth of rocks. Meteor impact will cause movement and depth of rocks.
Test for rocks around the volcano
* Meteor Craters form a hole in the ground test for rocks around the volcano

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* Salt Dome and Salt GlaciersSalt is Ductile

* Caldera
Caldera
Caldera (huge pits in the ground caused by volcanic eruptions) * Check for lava rocks near the happening
* Magma Chamber
Magma Chamber

January 10, 2013 Lecture Notes

Tectonic Plates
* They float (lower density
* They move at a rate of cm/ year
* Plate tectonics deform continents when they collide with other continents

Continental Crust: 2.7 g/cm cubed
Oceanic Crust: 3.3 g/cm cubed
Convergent Boundary: When the arrows are pointed towards the other direction, make sure to draw the subduction zone on your cross section towards the other direction as well. Convergent Boundary: When the arrows are pointed towards the other direction, make sure to draw the subduction zone on your cross section towards the other direction as well.

What are the different types of plate boundaries?

Convergent Boundary
* ocean to continent collision
-oceanic crust is denser because it’s thinner

Divergent Boundary
* Gets thinner and turns into oceanic crust
* seafloor spreading--> related to MOR

Transform Boundary

Passive Margin –Continental Crust (part of the same oceanic crust) (When the ocean continental and oceanic crust collide)
Passive Margin—Cross Section Picture
Passive Margin—Cross Section Picture

Volcanic Arc
Volcanic Arc
MOR
MOR
Passive Margin
Passive Margin
Cross Section Activity #3
Subduction Zone
Subduction Zone

Plate Tectonics

-mantle convection (Driving Forces)
Ridge Push and Slab Pull

Hot Spots
* Upwelling mantle
* Move toward oldest volcanoes
* North America is moving to the west with respect to the Yellowstone hot spot Atomic Structures
* How minerals actually form
* Nucleus
* Protons (+) =1 atomic mass unit
* Neutrons (neutral)
* Electron (-) =0 atomic mass unit
* Isotope same proton, different neutron
* Atomic # (proton and neutron)
January 15, 2013 Lecture Notes
* Ion charged atom
* Chemical Bonding
* Ionic: Transferring electrons from one element to another * Covalent: two elements/atoms are sharing electrons
* Minerals:
* have to be naturally occurring
* Ex: Cubic zirconium is a fake gem (made up of more than one mineral) * Inorganic
* Solid (ice is a solid-not water-which is what makes it [ice] a mineral. * Specific chemical composition
* Repeating crystalline structure
* Mineral Identification
* Based on mineral properties
* Hardness
* Crystal habit (how/shape it forms)
* Cleavage (mineral breaks in plates upon the plane) * Conchoidal fracture (no cleavage)
* Color (metals absorb light)
* Mafic minerals= dark
* Felsic minerals= light
January 16, 2013 Discussion Notes: Refer to Worksheet
January 17, 2013 Lecture Notes
Phase Diagrams
1. Thermal Melting
2. Decompression Melting

Temperature
Temperature
Melting:
Decompression Melting: Rocks are rising towards the surface
Wet Melting: Rocks get wet
Thermal Melting: Rocks are heated
**We expect to find decompression melting at a mid ocean ridge. **Decompression and Wet Melting are the most common ways for rocks to turn into magma. Pressure
Pressure
**While magma is rising, it heats rocks that are cooler towards the Earth’s surface thermal melting **Less Dense Lots of heat Rises as a solid

Rocks:
Darker= Mafic...
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