Geology and Petrology of Limestone

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GEOLOGY AND PETROLOGY OF THE FLETCHER LIMESTONE COMPANY QUARRY, FLETCHER, HENDERSON COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA by Kelley J. Kaltenbach

A Thesis Submitted to the University of North Carolina Wilmington in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

Department of Geography and Geology University of North Carolina Wilmington 2007

Approved by

Advisory Committee

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Accepted by ________________________________ Dean, Graduate School

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................vii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS………………………………………………………...……..............viii DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………....................ix LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………...……................x LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………….................xi LIST OF PLATES……………………………………………………………………..................xiv INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………...1 Study Objectives…………………………………………………………………………..3 Methods…………………………………………………………………………………...3 Terminology……………………………………………………………………….…...…5 Geologic Setting…………………………………...…………………………….…...…...6 Eastern Blue Ridge…………………………………………………………...…...8 Inner Piedmont…………………………………………………………………....9 Brevard fault zone……………………………………………………………......10 PETROLOGY OF THE FLETCHER MARBLE AND ADJACENT ROCKS…………………12 Quaternary Sediments……………………………………………………………………12 Fletcher marble…………………………………………………………………..………12 Mineralogy………………………...……………………………………………..15 Microtextural features……………………………………………………………37 Brevard phyllonite…………………...………….………………….…………………….42 Mineralogy………………………………………………………………………..42 Textural features…………………………………………………………………..61

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Exotic rocks……………………………………………………………………...67 Brittle features………………………………...…………………………………70 STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS………………………………………………………………...…75 Planar Structures……………………...………………………………………………….75 Continuous schistosity of the Brevard phyllonite………………………………..75 Fletcher marble shape fabric and lattice preferred orientation foliation…………………………...…………………………………75 Crenulation cleavage foliation…………………………………...........................77 Color banding…………...………...………………………………………....…..77 Joints and fractures………………………………………………….…………...77 Stylolites…………………………………………………………………………81 Lineations…………………………………………………...…………......…………….83 Fold Structures in the Brevard phyllonite…..…………………………………………....86 Intrafolial folds ……………………………...……………………...…………...86 Mesoscopic folds..……………………………………..………...………………86 Fold Structures in the Fletcher marble…………………………………………………..86 Brittle faults…………….………………………………………………………………..89

COMPARATIVE PETROGRAPHY OF SIMILAR CARBONATES.……………………..…..95 Linville Falls…………………………………………………………………………..…95 Bandana marble………………………………………………………………………...103 METAMORPHIC HISTORY……………………………………………………………….….106 Pressure-temperature systems used for interpretation……………………….................106

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Geothermometry and Geobarometry………………………………………………...…112 Upper amphibolite facies mineral assemblages in the Brevard phyllonite……………………………………………………………...112 Exotic rock metamorphic mineral assemblages……………..………………....113 Lower amphibolite facies assemblages within the Brevard phyllonite……………………………………………………………...114 Lower amphibolite facies mineral assemblages in the Fletcher marble………………………...………………………………...114 Greenschist facies assemblages in the Fletcher marble………………………...117 Dolomite and calcite twin geothermometry…………………………………….118 Vein-filling mineralization in the Fletcher marble……..………………………118 Regional Correlations…………………………………………………………………..119 PROTOLITH OF THE FLETCHER MARBLE………………………………………………..121 Prior Assumptions Regarding the Fletcher marble……………………………………..122 Shady Dolomite………………………………………………………………...............123 Knox Dolomite……………...………………………………………………………….123 Carbonate Facies within the Tallulah Falls Metamorphic...
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