Geography Sl and Hl Study Guide Population in Transitions

Topics: Demography, Population, Life expectancy Pages: 31 (8642 words) Published: November 1, 2012
Population In Transistion
Word population growth
* The world’s population has been growing increasingly rapidly and most of this growth is quite recent (since the mid 19th century) * Up to 95% of population growth is taking place in developing countries * The world’s population is expected to stabalize by around 2050-80 * North and Latin America is an exception because the population is predicted to be fallin by the end of the 21st century * Now, at 1.2% a year, the increase is also well below the 2.2% annual growth seen 40 years ago * The slowdown in global population growth is linked primarily to declines in fertility and increase in the number of elderly people in the world What are the causes of population growth?

* Increase in birth rate: Lack of awareness, and education, desire for children (sons), early marriages, custom and culture and infant mortality rate * Increase in net migration (average number of emigrants – immigrations) * The death rate: high death rate, lower population growth World population

* This explosive growth came about because death rates fell faster than birth rates * Availability of immunizations, antibiotics, clean water and increased food production yielded tremendous improvements in infant and child mortality rates * Rise in average life expectancy

* Fertility is the key to population growth
* In order to stable population size, (TFR) of 2.1 is needed * Ex. Us has a TFR of 2.1 but US will witness population increase as children born in previous years reach adulthood and begin adult gaving offspring * Countries with low TFR; China (1.8), Cuba (1.55), Spain (1.15), Italy and Greece (below 1.3); all of these countries will evenually witness population decline if these trends continue Fertility rates in the world

* in 1990 the world’s women were giving birth to 3.3 children each * by 2010, this had dropped to 2.56 children which is slightly above the level needed to replce the world’s population * the level of fertility is projected to fall below replacement level before 2050, because of AIDS, which has killed more than 20 million people in the past 20 years and lowering average life expectancy at birth around 40 years in some countries Birth rates and Fertility rates

* In LEDCs, the fertility rates have rapidly increased
* In MEDCs, birth reates and fertility rates have fallen
Why do you get high birth rates?| Why do birth rates come down ?| Parents want children 1. for labour 2. to look aftern them in old age 3. to continue the family nme 4. for prestige 5. to replace other children who have died(a high infant mortality rate) 6. children are net contributors to family income | 1. children are costly 2. the government looks after people through pensions and health services 3. more women want their own career an have higher status 4. there is widespread use of family planning 5. as the infant mortality rate comes down there is less need for replacement children 6. urbanization and industriliazation are associated with social changes and a decline in traditional beliefs and customs|

* in developed countries, the decline in fertility and the increase in lonegvity has raised 3 concern for the future 1. decrease in the supply of labor
2. socioeconomic implication of population ageing
3. long term prospect of population decline an demise
Death rates
* High death rates- lack of clean water and food, poor hygeine an sanitation, overcrowding, contagious diseases such as diarrohea and vommiting, and respiratory infections * Found highest in poor rural areas, shanty towns, refugee camps, and areas of relative and absolute poverty * Low death rates- clean water, a reliable food supply, good hygeine and sanitation, lower population densities, better vaccination and health care (rising standards of living) * The crude death rate is a poor...
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