Geography Notes

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Natural Hazards
Faith McPhee

SANDSTORMS
-wind current goes under layer of sand and picks it up like a tidal wave. -mostly in deserts (no vegetation)
-Dust Devils in U.S.A (smaller version of sandstorm but with dust) -is sometimes caused by soil loss in dry lands
-fast moving
Cyclones/Typhoons/Hurricanes
-Starts as storm, but is considered a TROPICAL storm when winds reach 74 miles per hour. -swirling water inward is eye, swirling < is southern hem, swirling > is northern hem. -Convection effect

-Hot/humid air + water
-most dissipate in ocean
- DAMAGE $$$
- Winds up to 250 mph + high/strong/fast/destructive waves
CYCLONE: tropical storm, in Australia, Philippines, and south west pacific TYPHOON: tropical storm, in west pacific (E. Asia)
HURRICANES: tropical storm, in Atlantic (Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, centre = calm eye, outer swirls = high waves + winds. Tsunamis
* Ocean pacific
* Deep water > small wave. Shallow water near land > larger wave, faster * i.d- buoys + satellite
* caused by underwater earthquake
Oil Spills
* oil gets into ocean
* spreads quickly
* damage to habitats
* DESTRUCTIVE
* Clogs whales blowholes, seals ingest, fish swallow, otter + birds covered * More experienced tankers can prevent
* CLEAN UP: leave alone to break down (minor)
Contain using buoys then scoop up
Burn oil
Use chemicals to biodegrade it
* 257 oil spills annually
* 1 gallon of motor oil can contaminate 1 million gallons of fresh water = years supply for 50 people. * U.S.A wastes 1.3 billion gallons of oil each year
Earthquakes
* 80% occur near ring of fire
* Measured on Richter scale (1-10)
* Plate moves as fast as fingernail grows
* Release of energy in earth’s crust creates seismic waves/tremors * 10,000 people die annually
* Caused by shift of plates grinding on fault lines, ground shakes –epicentre-...
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