Geography Indian Climate Notes Class 10

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Climate- India
The Climate of India is an interesting subject of study - it is just as varied as everything else about India- its people, its culture, its topography. India is a composite in many ways - and at the core of this composite trait lies its vast and varied topography. From snow capped mountains to clear streams and vast oceans, from a desert habitat to lush green tropical forests, large plain lands, plateaus and mountains - we have it all and even more. India experiences 4 seasons: The Summer Season, The Monsoon Season, The Season of Retreating Monsoon and the The Cold Weather Season. In general, India is said to have a Tropical Monsoon Climate. In this chapter we shall find out all about the Tropical Monsoon Climate of India.

It is interesting to find that a get together of few friends geared up with a serious discussion. Raj was the last one to arrive at the venue though he blamed the Kolkata traffic for this but everybody knows it was the winter morning’s” last minute sleep of the day” that held him to bed so long, Akash even could not resist saying:” com’on now admit the truth, we all know that you woke up late even today…”. Well this is pretty similar to the other two of the group but Akash and Sandip were tough to be convinced. Akash from Delhi found the temperature endurable and for Sandip this bone chilling cold was his Christmas gift. This was how their discussion switched on a serious note… temperature distribution. While we in Kolkata have tropical temperature, Akash in Delhi experiences extreme temperature conditions whereas Sandip from Kerala misses the cold winter days that we have here. There are therefore great variations in climate which is clearly felt in our country. Take for example, the contrast in climate between Delhi in the north and Kerala in the south. While Delhi has continental climate with tremendous heat in summer and unbearable cold in winter, Kerala has tropical climate with uniform distribution of temperature. Again while Assam in the north-east of the country receives heavy rainfall Bikaner (western Rajasthan) gets scanty rainfall. A quick look to the discussion given below will help you understand it better. Factors Affecting the Climate of India: 1)The tropic of cancer passes through the middle of India dividing the country into two halves- the northern and the southern. While the northern half is in the Temperate Zone the southern half is in the Tropical Zone. 2) The other factor that influences the climatic conditions greatly is the presence of the Himalayas,

separating India from the rest of Asia and preventing the bitter cold winds from entering India. The Himalayas also intercept the rain-bearing south west monsoon winds, forcing them to shed their moisture, resulting in heavy rainfall in the Indo-Gangetic plain. (This will be explained in detail later) India is a vast country and is characterised by climatic contrasts from north to south, but the one factor that unites the country is the monsoons and we can thus broadly describe the climate of India as Tropical Monsoon Type of climate. Now the question that arises in our mind is…What is Monsoon? The word has been derived from the Arabic word ‘mausim’ which means seasons. Monsoon is a large scale seasonal wind system that blows over vast areas of the globe, steadily in the same direction. They are reversed with the change of season. The monsoon winds are also called the land and sea breezes as both are caused due to differential heating of land and sea. These winds are called South-West Monsoon winds and North-East Monsoon winds depending on the direction from where they blow.

The Seasons in India
In India we specifically experience four seasons in a year: The Hot and Dry Weather Season, The Rainy Season, The Retreating Monsoon Season and The Cold Weather Season.

Dry weather and excessive heat describes this season well. This season extends from March to May....
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