Geography

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BRANCHES OF GEOGRAPHY
(BASED ON SYSTEMATIC APPROACH)
1. Physical Geography
(i) Geomorphology
Is devoted to the study of landforms, their evolution and related processes. (ii) Climatology
Encompasses the study of structure of atmosphere and elements of weather and climates and climatic types and regions. (iii) Hydrology
Studies the realm of water over the surface of the earth including oceans, lakes, rivers and other water bodies and its effect on different life forms including human life and their activities. (iv) Soil Geography

Is devoted to study the processes of soil formation, soil types, their fertility status, distribution and use. 2. Human Geography
(i) Social/Cultural Geography
Encom-passes the study of society and its spatial dynamics as well as the cultural elements contributed by the society. (ii) Population and Settlement Geography
(Rural and Urban). It studies population growth, distribution, density, sex ratio, migration and occupational structureetc. Settlement geography studies the characteristics of rural and urban settlements. (iii) Economic Geography

Studies economic activities of the people including agriculture, industry, tourism, trade, and transport, infrastructure and services, etc. (iv) Historical Geography
Studies the historical processes through which the space gets organized. Every region has undergone some historical experiences before attaining the present day status .
The geographical features also experience temporal changes and these form the concerns of historical geography. (v) Political Geography
Looks at the space from the angle of political events and studies boundaries, space relations between neighboring political units, delimitation of constituencies, election scenario and develops theoretical framework to understand the political behavior of the population. 3. Biogeography

The interface between physical geography and human geography has lead to the development of Biogeography which includes: (i) Plant Geography
Which studies the spatial pattern of natural vegetation in their habitats. (ii) Zoo Geography
Which studies the spatial patterns and geographic characteristics of animals and their habitats.

(iii) Ecology /Ecosystem
Deals with the scientific study of the habitats characteristic of species. (iv) Environmental Geography
Concerns world over leading to the realization of environmental problems such as land gradation, pollution and concerns for conservation has resulted in the introduction of this new branch in geography. HISTORY of GEOGRAPHY

This is a compilation of key dates in the history of geography and the world. 2300 BCE| The first city map was created in stone for Lagash, Mesopotamia| 450| Herodotus compiled a map of the known world|

334| Alexander the Great began conquring the Middle East and India| 240| Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the earth| 45| Julian calendar established|
20 CE| Strabo published his 17 volume Geography|
77| Pliny the Elder wrote his encyclopedia of geography|
79| Mount Vesuvius erupted and Pompeii was destroyed|
150| Ptolmey published his Geography and included a map of the world with places labeled with a coordinate grid system| 271| The magnetic compass was in use in China|
326| Helena, Constantine's mother, traveled to the Holy Land to identify places sacred to Christianity| 476| The Fall of Rome|
632| Muhammed died and Muslim expansion began|
982| Eric the Red reached Baffin Island in North America| 995| Leif Ericson established a colony in Newfoundland|
1095| The first Crusade began|
1154| Edrisi's book of world geography was published|
1170| The letter from Prester John, asking for help against infidels, "arrived" at the Pope| 1271| Marco Polo headed for China|
1325| Tenochtitlan founded by Aztecs|
1347| Bubonic Plague, "Black Death," in Europe, 30 million die| 1377| ibn-Khaldun completed his history of the...
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