Geographical Methodology

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Introduction
Geography has helped many individuals to better understand the earth and apply geographic knowledge to a multitude of human activities and is the science of the world (GIS, 2011). Furthermore, many organizations have advanced in his or her organizational practices since the development of the geographical methodology, which is a new way of thinking and problem solving that integrates geographic information into how businesses and individuals understand and manage the planet (GIS, 2011). History of GIS

Layman’s navigational tool of choice was the paper map because it was accurate and reliable during the 1800s and 1900s (Mahaney, 2011). The evolution of paper maps partially came to a slow throughout the 20th century. Developments in technology, at the same time, generated social reliance on everything digital, particularly data processing and communication (Mahaney, 2011). As time progressed, it was not until the 1960s, approximately, when Howard Fisher began the development of mapping software (Mahaney, 2011). Fisher, at this time established the Harvard Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis (Mahaney, 2011). The implementation was the start of the digital evolution. Immediately right after, geographical information system (GIS) and associated databases had evolved and automated mapping systems grew (Mahaney, 2011). While GIS progression continued to grow, it was not until 1968, when a private consulting group called the Environmental Science Research Institute (ESRI) was founded (Mahaney, 2011). ESRI was a (need to find out their purpose). “Over the years, ESRI continue to set precedent in the GIS industry by initiating research on cartographic software tools and data structure that transformed modern mapping” (Mahaney, 2011).

What is GIS?
GIS is a system of computer software, hardware, and data that many organizations use to manipulate and analyze information pertinent to a situational decision that can ultimately...
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