Great geographical discoveries - a popular term geographical discoveries made at the turn of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, in particular: circumnavigation Cape of Good Hope by Diaz (1488), the discovery of America by Columbus (1492), and then the conquest, trip [[Vasco da Gama | to India (1498) and the first trip around the world, Magellan (1519-1522). These events triggered a further voyages of discovery and contributed to a significant widening of the geographical horizon of Europeans.
Expedition of Christopher Columbus
Rulers of Spain, they realized that they begin to lose the distance to Portugal, which definitely lead the quantity organized expeditions. But so far Spain was busy fighting with the Arabs, who defended her at the last stronghold - Grenada. When in 1492 the Saracens were expelled from the Iberian peninsula, Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to finance the expedition, which presented them with a description of the Genoese Christopher Columbus. The traveler asked the first king of Portugal. Presented a plan aimed at shipping on the west and in accordance with the map of Ptolemy, after crossing the Atlantic to reach Asia. However, not met with favor. With the same plan, asked the king of Spain. Under the agreement, written by Columbus from the royal couple: Columbus was appointed for life admiral, governor and viceroy of the newly discovered lands. 1 / 10 of income from the newly discovered land was to belong to Columbus, the rest of the royal treasury. In return, Columbus promised to cover 1 / 8 the cost of the expedition. The rest covered the royal couple.
And the expedition of Christopher Columbus (1492-1493)
The expedition set sail on August 3, 1492 from the port of Palos de la Frontera. The first stage of the journey were previously discovered the Canary Islands, then Columbus sailed along the 28 parallel to the west. The crew, consisting of about 90 people after 3 weeks of shipping began to rebel, when it turned out that you can not see land. 29.09. Columbus in his diary wrote that it was rebellion. 11.10. Columbus erected ultimatum - if within 24 hours will not see the land has ordered outflow. Fortunately for Kolumba12 October after three months of the expedition, when the entire crew of the ship was already tired and actually threatened Columbus's death, Juan Rodriguez Bermejo saw the crow's nest land. The expedition landed on the island probably Watling (called Guanahani by the Indians), a small island group of the Bahamas. In the natives pointed gold ornaments. Interviewed about their origin indicated the direction to the south. Judging from this that lies to the north of the mainland, Columbus chose a new course to the southwest. Indians called the island's inhabitants. October 28 Columbus arrived in Cuba, then on December 6 found another island of Haiti / Hispaniola and the smaller islands, which he called Isabella and Fernandina in honor of the royal couple. Then there was a crisis - in late January and February turned out that the admiral ship sank and the Santa Maria, Columbus ordered the return to their homeland. In March 1493, two ships returned to Palos.
Second expedition of Christopher Columbus (1493 - 1494)
September 25, 1493, the expedition set off another. This time the expedition better equipped, numbering more ships (about 15, the number of crew: about 1750). The expedition lasted 1.5 years. This time, Columbus chose a more southern route, and thus reached land in the area of the Lesser Antilles. Subsequently discovered the island of Dominica, Marie - Galante, Guadeloupe, Antigua and Puerto Rico. Nov. 22 Columbus arrived in Haiti again, to see that the people left there, no one survived. How domyślono, all perished in the struggle with the natives. In the longer journey Columbus sailed along the southern coast of Cuba and discovered Jamaica. However, the absolute gggaaaTymczasem proceeding to Columbus alienated a large part of his crew. Discouraged many hardships...
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