WHICH GIS SYSTEMS ARE USED IN ISTANBUL/TURKEY.
IT.413.1-2011.2 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Many GIS activities and projects are going on in Turkey as it is happing in the modern World. For Turkey, these activities can be categorised under three main sections, which are public, private and education sectors. One of the project which is called National Spatial Information System has been designed under the Prime Ministry, national security based GIS projects were developed by the General Command of Mapping, Land Information Systems which are related to national property information systems and land management projects, environmental, earthquake based GIS works, and urban spatial information system projects are followed by local authorities can be given as main public GIS activities. However, private sector has been focused on more individual spatial information system projects which can help to develop of private investments. In addition, GIS education is also growing very rapidly, more specifically in universities. In this paper, GIS activities will generally be reviewed from the point of its potential use and current issues of GIS usage in Turkey.
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be defined as an organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information. It manages census data, zoning and tax assessment maps, digital aerial photographs, and satellite images, providing public access to information that previously was difficult to use. GIS also provides tools for exploring information through maps and images, helping inquisitive minds to see things in a new way. Because of GIS is very important concept for today’s world it seems to be about 2 million GIS users at present. Not only in the world but also in Turkey, the importance of GIS has been realized by many government and non-government institutions. Especially after 1990’s, many GIS related developments have been done in the country. At the beginning a few public projects has been came out by the General Command of Mapping for producing digital maps for army forces aims. Besides, some universities also started to GIS related researches at graduate level in order to explore GIS abilities in countrywide. The first national symposium on GIS has been held in 1994, and when universities pioneered to use and talk on GIS it is recognized by public bodies that GIS is a powerful information system. Since, many GIS related activities are going around on Turkey in public and private sectors. Besides some national GIS based projects, local authorities are mostly trying to use it for organizing and taking care of their spatial data in order to collect tax, inspecting urbanization and to make a dynamic planning process available as well. But at this moment at the national level, there is not any standard accepted officially for GIS terminology, GIS feature and attribute coding, GIS data exchanges as well. As a result, even a rapid development ongoing for GIS use, complexity and misuse of data still exist. So, in generally, Turkey has a great potential for GIS hardware and software vendors, data producers and users. But there is also a considerable distinction between the public and private sectors in terms of qualitative and quantitative use of GIS technology.
CLASSIFICATION OF GIS USED IN TURKEY
Because of non-availability of data, it is not easy to classify GIS activities under a standardized content but it can be put under three main subjects. These are public, private and education sectors.
2.1 GIS in Public Sector As mentioned before, public sector can be accepted as the leader of GIS activities in Turkey. As it has been thought in many other countries, in Turkey, national security information is important and...