GEOG 4077 – Mid-term Review
>Economics is disembodied from regions & cities and Economic Geography is here to fill that space. >German Geography is very field oriented.
* Friedrich Ratzel: “Anthropogeographica” (1882)
A branch of anthropology dealing with the geographical distribution of humankind and the relationship between human beings and their environment. Cultural Historical economic paradigm to work with.
He first coined the term, lebensraum (which translates to “living space” in German). This term was later used by Adolf Hitler. He wanted to eliminate Poland so that Germany could expand (strong states expand and the weak states contract). Hitler wanted to use this term in order to acquire a “living space” for the racially superior Aryan race.
Johann Heinrich von Thunen:
German scholar who developed the core-periphery model in the nineteenth century. In his model he proposed an “isolated state” that had no trade connections with the outside world; possessed only one market, located centrally in the state; and had uniform soil, climate, and level terrain throughout. He created this model to study the influence of distance from market and the concurrent transport costs on the type and intensity of agriculture. In each successive ring, the land gets cheaper. The problems with this model:
* Water availability, rivers make a land a more profitable area. * Soil
* Terrain – mountains
The black dot represents a city.
(1) White circle represents what must be closest to the city. (dairy and market gardening including tomatos, cucumbers, melons) (2) Green circle represents building supplies as well as forest for fuel. (3) The yellow circle represents grains and field crops (more expensive land) (4) The red area represents ranch land for meat
(5) The outer dark green area represents wilderness where agriculture is not profitable
Traditional location theory: Trying to decide mathematically where the next location for your next business will be. You must go out & do the fieldwork instead of sitting in an office and making a map. Thus, firms choose locations that maximize their profits and individuals choose locations that maximize their utility.
A forerunner of economic geography concerned with describing, tabulating and cartographically representing the geographical facts of commerce for practical, business ends. Coined by the philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) in the late eighteenth century as one of his six divisions of geography.
What is the nature of capitalism?
Ex: Until 1857, India was mostly run by the East India Company, also known as the first transnational corporation. The goal was to maximize profits; therefore, the well-being of laborers was not a concern. 1857 was the Indian war for Independence. Commercial geography showed the expansion of the colonial empire through the 20th century.
Ellsworth Huntington: developed the idea of “Environmental Determinism”. One of the best known U.S. proponents of Ratzel’s ideas; argued that climate was a major determinant of civilization; according to him climate of maritime northwestern Europe produced greater human efficiency as measured by better health conditions, lower death rates, and higher standards of living. * Arrid environments create dictatorships
-Trade, crops, and goods need to listen to their environment. - Grand irrigation projects
Ellen Churchill Semple: Went to Germany to study with Ratzel and was told she could not enter the classroom because she was a woman. She got her degree & started the first Geography department at Clark University (the only university that has a college for Geography).
Jared Diamond: An American scientist and geographer. explains proximate and ultimate reasons for colonial empires * proximate: guns, germs, and steel
* more domesticated plants and animals...
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