Geo 101

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Pat I. Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards (Chapter 4)
1. Between 2001 and 2012, 41 volcanic events occurred worldwide. 2. 11 eruptions with VEI>=3 erupted from 2001-2012
3. Some volcanoes that were erupted and associated with tsunamis are: * Name: Stramboli
Eruption type: stratovolcano
Location: Italy
* Name: Soufriefe hills (2003)
Eruption type: stratovolcano
Location: W indies

* Name: Soufriefe hills (2006)
Eruption type: stratovolcano
Location: W indies

* Name: Kasatochi
Eruption type: stratovolcano
Location: Aleutian Is
4. The type of volcanoes that produced these explosive eruptions (VEI 3>=3; 2001-2012) is the strato-volcano. The nature of these volcanoes in general. Is that they have deadly pryoclastic flows of hot fragments and toxic gases the explosive nature comes from silica in the magma. The few other types of volcanoes are shield, cinder and complex (compound) volcanoes. One type of volcano is, Etna this volcano is also entitled a “strato volcano” it produces violent activity including lots of ash, lava and gas which causes danger to the population around any slopes nearby. Etna’s type of magma is high in silica when it occurs it’s accompanied by other large lava flows. 5. Deaths: Mayon (2006) Injuries: merapi (2010) Damage: merapi (2010) highest of 4 (extreme) 6. Yes, I did find a relation between these volcano effects including deaths, I feel overall there were less damages and more deaths and injuries the numbers were very high between those areas. As far as the damage there was only one volcano that did the highest (merapi) in 2010. For example, Nyiragongo had some deaths and many injuries, meaning that this volcano was harmful during eruption; but the Mayon in 2006 had “very many” for deaths but no injuries or damages, so it all depended on the deaths to determine the number for injuries and how much damage it did. B.

1. There were 74 significant volcanic events occurred between 1991 and 2012. 2. All volcanic eruptions associated with earthquakes (1991-2012): Pinatubo, VEI - 6, stratovolcano
Miyake - Jima, VEI - 2. stratovolcano
Etna, VEI - 3, stratovolcano
Sarigan, VEI - N/A, stratovolcano
3. Several volcanic eruptions associated with tsunamis (1991-2012): Rabaul, VEI - 3, pyroclastic shield
Karymsky, VEI - 2, stratovolcano
Soufriere Hills, VEI - N/A, stratovolcano
Soufriere Hills, VEI - 3, stratovolcano
Miyake-Jima, VEI - 2, stratovolcano
Stromboli, VEI - N/A, stratovolcano
Soufriere Hills, VEI - 3, stratovolcano
Soufriere Hills, VEI - 2, stratovolcano
Kasatochi, VEI - 3, stratovolcano
Sarigan, VEI - N/A, stratovolcano
4. The eruption that had the highest volcanic explosivity index is, Pinatubo which occurred 5/15/199. The VEI of this event was 6. Many of the deaths were by mudflow, diseases and from the eruption which caused negative impacts. C.

1. 414 significant volcanic events occurred between 1811 and 2012. 2. One event that resulted in the maximum number of deaths and injuries is event Pelee which occurred in 5/8/1902. It had 28000 deaths, 4 injuries and the VEI – 4. 4. One event that resulted in maximum monetary damage is, St.Helens. The estimated amount for associated monetary damage is $2000MIL; under the damage column it is listed as a number 4 which is “extreme” usually events with that number rough estimate will be $25 Million or more. 5. One of the worst eruptions that occurred since 1811 is, Tambora. The dangerous consequences of this eruption is this effected climate worldwide throughout 1811 but also on agriculture for example, low temperatures, freezing temperatures in spring and heavy precipitation between 1816- 1817 and this was a negative because, it affected the growth of crops, another volcanic hazard was that temperatures dropped about 5 degrees F. Another hazard was, it killed more than 100,000 people. It ejected a lot of ash...
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