Protocol I and II of the
Geneva Convention of 1949
Protocol I and II were an addition to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International and non-international Armed Conflicts, which took place on 8 June 1977. The preamble of Protocol I states the desire for the involved parties to have peace prevail. Protocol I was meant to reaffirm all states agreement to the Charter of the United Nations, and its vow “to refrain in its international relations from the threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.” The preamble of Protocol II reminds all parties involved of its responsibility to protect human life. Protocol II references Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, which states “constitute the foundation of respect for the human person in cases of armed conflict not of an international character.” Protocol I and II says even in cases not covered by this Protocol or by other international agreements, “civilians and combatants remain under the protection and authority of the principles of international law derived from established custom, from the principles of humanity and from dictates of public conscience.” This basically means if the Protocol doesn’t cover a person or situation then will be covered by the principles of the United Nations. “The application of the Conventions and of this Protocol shall cease, in the territory of Parties to the conflict, on the general close of military operations and, in the case of occupied territories, on the termination of the occupation, except, in either circumstance, for those persons whose final release, repatriation or re-establishment takes place thereafter. These persons shall continue to benefit from the relevant provisions of the Conventions and of this Protocol until their final release repatriation...
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