Genetically Modified Organisms

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Genetically Modified Organisms
Group B:

Carly Sandine
Rodney Fitzsimmons
Earl Lancaster
April Hall
Katherine Arciuolo

HUMN432
Professor Melichar

Table of Contents
Page
Thesis...4
Technology and Associated Science5
What are Genetically Modified Organisms?5
The Process of Genetic Engineering…..5
Why do we need Genetic Engineering?6
Selective Breeding7
Grafting7
Why were Genetically Modified Crops created?8
Health Risks10
The Historical Development and Context of Technology11
History of Genetic Engineering11
Modification of Plants and the Technologies Used…..14
Modification of Animals and the Technologies Used15
Modifications of Medicine and the Technologies Used16
Modifications of People and the Technologies Used……………………………………….17
Modification of Food and the Technologies Used………………………………………… 18
Political and Legal Influences20
The Food and Drug Administration Standpoint20
Recent Judicial Proceedings …..22
The Necessity of GM Foods22
Economic Implications and Considerations23
National level economics23
Corporation/Farmer implications…..25
Consumer benefits and pitfalls26
Psychological and Sociological Effects27
Psychological Effects…………………………………………………………………….....27
Sociological Effects……28
Organizations that have arisen29
Moral and Ethical Issues of Genetically Modified Organisms30
Are GMOs toxic30
Consumer rights…..31
Religious purposes32
Quality of life34
The Technology in its Cultural Context and Media Influence………………………………35
How society looks at GMO’s35
Cultural Context…..36
The influence of the Media37
Implications for the environment39
The Necessity of GM Foods40
GMOs and the Natural Food Industry …..41
Summary42
Conclusion42
References43

Genetic Engineering may sound like a good idea, but others may think differently. Scientists take genes from one organism and insert them into a different organism. This can even be done by putting animal genes into plants or vice versa. But this mixing and shuffling of genes has caused some concerns. Many consumers and scientists question whether genetically engineered foods are safe to eat. They also have serious environmental and cultural concerns about genetically altering foods. Throughout the last decade, genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) have been at the forefront of the news. This paper will cover the technology itself, as well as give an explanation of GMOs. It will also cover the historical development of GMO’s and the active modifications of plants, animals, medicines, people and food. It will give an explanation of the political and legal influences as well as the implications towards the environment.

Introduction
Each year about 600,000 children in the developing world go blind because they do not have enough vitamin A in their diet. Eating a couple of carrots a day would solve the problem, but carrots are not grown in these countries. However, within the next few years these children will be able to eat a special type of rice that has been genetically modified so that it contains enough vitamin A to stop them from going blind.

Meeting all of these challenges will require knowledge gained by scientific advances, and the development of new technologies. Genetic modification is one of the most promising. It involves changing the genetic content of plants and animals in order to create foods with new characteristics.

What are Genetically Modified Organisms?
Genetically Modified Organisms also known as GMOs are "organisms in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in such a way that does not occur naturally” (World Health Organization, 2002). It involves changing the genetic content of plants and animals in order to create foods with new characteristics. This technology can also be referred to as genetic...
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