Genetic Mutations That Cause Skin Cancer

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 175
  • Published : February 10, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
Cancer begins when one or more genes change from their normal form. This either creates an abnormal protein or no protein at all, both of which cause mutated cells to multiply uncontrollably. (Association, 2011) Melanoma can either be caused by inherited genes or defects that are caused from environmental factors, such as exposure to too much sun. However, according to the Centre for Genetics Education, all cancers can be considered genetic in origin because they arise from changes in the normal cancer protection genes that we all have. (Education, 2007) What Genetic mutations produce the greatest risk of skin cancer? Are these gene mutations germ-line (passed from parent to child), or caused by exposure to UV light? The most common gene mutations in melanoma is CDKN2A, these genes are an automatic controller of cell division. CDKN2A can be inherited or non-inherited. Mutations in these regulators of cell division are the most common causes of inherited melanoma. These mutations, however, are still very uncommon overall and can also appear in non-inherited cases of melanoma. People with this gene often have a large number of irregularly shaped moles and are diagnosed with melanoma at a young age. (Association, 2011)

CDK4 and CDK6 have important roles in progression of cells from G1 to S phase. CDK4 and CDK6 partner with the family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cycling dependent kinases enzymes (a type of enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules, such as ATP to specific substrates). Phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma releases transcription factors, inducing gene expression and metabolic changes that precede DNA replication, thus allowing the cell to progress through the cell cycle. These genes are significant because they are in the same signaling pathway...
tracking img