College English II
Zhyldzybek uulu Omurbek
Nowadays genetic modification is one of the widely discussed topics and it seems that the debates are not going to end very soon. Primarily genetic modification is associated by most of the people with enriching mankind’s knowledge in sciences such as biology and chemistry. Also a lot of people find it as a solution to the countries at the brick of famine. However, while genetic engineering and the food crisis in the third world countries existing together, the idea of genetically modified foods as a solution became doubtful. Every private company has its shareholders, who are only interested in making profits, and it is a fact that all genetic modification companies are private. The main motive in genetic modification is financial.
Genetic Modification is very old craft for mankind. It is taking part in our lives from thousands years ago until today, but it all began with selective breeding. In the early years of human, when we used agriculture in order to feed himself, human understood that using seeds of better tastes and of bigger sizes will make next harvest of a new generation, better. Even though, human did not know that it was genetic modification, he was making steps further in genetic engineering boom. Since the dawn of agriculture, humankind sought to grow biggest pumpkin, the most tasteful apple and etc. Till now, we have selected seed from plants that bear these characteristics, then cross-pollinated the strongest, healthiest plants in the hope of producing the most desirable food. That time future seemed bright with genetic modification, it seemed world hunger will disappear as genetic modification will switch to mass production. In the early 1990s the first genetically modified tomato crop was successfully produced commercially. (Chapman, page 1 History of genetically modified food) From that time genetically modified crops were switching to commercial business very fast. Already in 1997, 15% of the United States crop was grown from genetically modified seed. (Durant, page 1 Genetic engineering: who benefits?)
Certainly there are adverse effects in this science that was not expected by developers. Direct harms caused by genetic modification can be divided into environmental, which includes agricultural problems and potential harms to human health. The ability to identify all problems in this technology is limited with the current incomplete knowledge of physiology, genetics, and nutrition, but already there are several serious dangers. Toxin presence in genetically modified food is maybe one of the first dangers it has. Genetic engineering can cause unexpected mutation in an organism, which can create new and higher levels of toxins in foods. Recently, Bt and other toxins, that were designed to kill crop pests, were found in 93% of unborn babies. (Poulter, page 1 GM food toxins found in the blood of 93% of unborn babies) It can lead to allergies, miscarriage, abnormalities or even cancer. Moreover, gene flow (gene migration) is another risk in genetic engineering. Usually genes placed in crops will not necessarily stay in agricultural field; they tend to move to their relatives, growing near crop. When these crops move, they can move to unwanted plants and make them weed, which is another problem to agriculture genetic modification brings. In the early 2000s presence of minor and unwanted organisms was found in cornfields in the states of Chihuahua, Morelos, Durango, Mexico State, Puebla, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosh, Tlaxcala and Veracruz; plants contained presence of two, three and four different genetically modified types patented by biotechnological corporations. (Puebla, page 1 9 Mexican States found to be GM contaminated) As 70% of US foods become genetically modified (Lochhead, page 1 genetically modified crops’ results concern), threats to entire food supply drastically grew.
In spite of great risks, labeling is a problem nowadays....