Generation of Computer

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6/22/2012

Generations of Computer Computer Age: Past, Present, and Future The First generation The Second Generation The Third Generation The Fourth Generation The Fifth Generation

The Computer Age
1951-1958

The First Generation
Vacuum Tube
– –

Rapid changes Four generations over 50 years Trends across generations – Decrease size – Increase speed

Magnetic core memory Storage
– –

Heat Burnout

Machine language

Punched cards Tape (1957)

Characteristics of 1st Generation Computers Computers big and clumsy Electricity consumption is high Electric failure occurred regularly - computers not very reliable Large air conditioners was necessary because the computers generated heat Batch processing

The First Generation
1951, UNIVAC
Eckert and Mauchly completed the first commercial computer in the USA – the UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) First computer built for business Short Code - A set of instructions called Short Code is developed for the UNIVAC. Programmers

The First Generation
1951, SAGE - Semi Automatic Ground Environment was developed. IBM built the SAGE computers and became leaders in real-time applications and used the technology of Whirlwind. SAGE computers were used in an early U.S. air defense system. They were fully deployed in 1963, that consisted of 27 centers throughout North America, each with a duplexed AN/FSQ-7 computer system containing over 50,000 vacuum tubes, weighing 250 tons and occupying an acre of floor space. SAGE was the first large computer network to provide man-machine interaction in real time.

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The First Generation
1952, EDVACElectronic Discreet Variable Computer


The First Generation
1953, IBM 701


John Von Neumann, designed with a central control unit which would calculate and output all mathematical and logical problems and a memory which could be written to and read. (RAM in modern terms) which would store programs and data.

The 701 was formally announced on May 21, 1952. It was the unit of the overall 701 Data Processing System in which actual calculations were performed. That activity involved 274 assemblies executing all the system's computing and control functions by means of electronic pulses emitted at speeds ranging up to one million a second. Whirlwind was a large scale, general purpose digital computer begun at the Servomechanisms Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1946.

1953, The Whirlwind


The Second Generation
1959-1964 Transistor
– – – – – –

The Second Generation
Computers became smaller Generate less heat Electricity consumption lower More reliable and faster Core memory developed Magnetic tapes and disks used First operating systems developed A new processing method was needed. Time-sharing (processing technique)

Storage
– –

Smaller No warm-up time Less energy Less heat Faster More reliable

Removable disk pack (1954) Magnetic tape Assembly language FORTRAN (1954) COBOL(1959)

Programming languages
– – –

Used primarily by business, university, government

The Second Generation
• 1963, Mini-computer: PDP-8
– Digital introduces the first successful minicomputer – the PDP-8. It was about as large as a fridge and used transistors and magnetic core memory.

The Second Generation
1964, IBM’s System 360 – It consisted of 6 processors and 40 peripheral units. More than 100 computers per month were ordered. 1964, BASIC (programming language) –

• 1964 Real-time reservation system IBM developed a realtime computerised ticket reservation system for American Airways. – It was smaller than SAGE and was called SABRE (Semi-Automatic Business-Related Environment).

A programming language was necessary that could be used in a time-sharing environment and that could serve as a training language.

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The Third Generation
1965-1970 Integrated Circuit – Electronic circuit on small silicon chip – Reliability – Compactness – Low cost –...
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