Fear – State of Immediate Alarm
Anxiety – Vague sense of being in danger same physical features as fear. The adaptive function of fear or anxiety is to prepare us for action ‘fight or flight” Anxiety Disorder – When symptoms last too long or too prevalent, or triggered to easily. 18.1 percent of people have one of the six anxiety disorders (DSM-IV-TR), only about 1/5 seek treatment, $42 billion in health care expenses., 90% with anxiety also experience another type of anxiety in their lives. 60% with depression also experience anxiety
16% with bipolar experience panic disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder – Experience excessive anxiety under most circumstances and worry about anything. (Fre floating anxiety)
3% of US population have symptoms of this disorder.
The Sociocultural Perspective: Societal and Multicultural Factors
Sociocultural theorist believe generalized anxiety disorder to most likely develop in people who are faced with societal conditions that are truly dangerous.
One of the most powerful forms of societal stress is poverty. 6.6% for African American women
Nervios – cultural bound among Hispanics similar to generalized anxiety disorder. Sociocultural theorist must explain why some people develop the disorders and others do not.
The psychodynamic Perspective
Sigmund Freud – Believed that all children experience some degree of anxiety as part of growin up, and all use ego defense mechanisms to control anxiety.
Realitics Anxiety – Children display when they face actual danger Neurotic Anxiety – When they are repeated prevented, from expressing their ID impulses. Moral Anxiety – When they are punished or threathed for expressing thei r ID impulses.
Psychodynamic Explanations: When Childhood Anxiety Goes Unresolved
Psychodynamic theorist believe that disorder can be traced to inadequancies in the early relationship between child and parent. Overprotected children turn to high anxiety adults.
Free Association and the therapists interpretation of transference, resistance and dreams. Freudian Psychodynami therapist use these to help by becoming less afraid of their id impulses and more successful at controlling them. Object relation therapists – use them to help anxious patients identify and settle the childhood relationship problems that continue to produce anxiety in adulthood. Studies show the approach to help only modest,
Short term psychodynamic therapy has significicantly reduced the levels of anxiety, worry and social difficulty of patients.
The Humanistic Perspective
Humanistic theorists believe that it arises when people stop looking at themselves honestly and acceptingly. Repeated denials of their true thoughts, emotions and behavior make these people extremely anxious and unable to fulfill their potential as human beings.
Carl Rogers Explanation – Children who failed to receive constant positive regard may become overly critical of themselves, Rogers called it conditions of worth.
Practitioners of Rogers treatment approach, CLIENT CENTERED THERAPY,, try to show unconditional positive regard and emphasize with patients. The therapist hope that an atmosphere of genuine acceptance and caring will help clients feel secure enough to recognize their true needs, thoughts and emotions.
The Cognitive Perspective
The cognitive approach suggest that psychological problems are caused by dysfunctional ways of thinking.
Cognitive theorist suggest that generalized anxiety disorder is caused by Maladaptive Asumptions.
Albert Ellis – Many people are guided by irrational beliefs that lead them to act and react in inappropriate ways, ellis called these BASI IRRATIONAL ASSUMPTIONS,
Aaron Beck – People with generalized anxiety disorder constantly hold silent assumptions that imply they are in imminent...