General Systems Theory

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Ludwig von Bertalanffy was one of the most important theoretical biologists of the first half of this century. His research consisted of comparative physiology, biophysics, cancer, psychology and the philosophy of science. Von Bertalanffy thought of the idea of General System Theory back in 1936, but hesitated until 1948 when the intellectual climate was more receptive. At the University of Chicago (1937-38) he worked with the Russian physicist Nicolaus Rashevsky. There he gave his first lecture about the General System Theory as a methodology that is valid for all sciences.

Systems thinking dates back to antiquity (Mayans, Egyptians, Greeks) Von Bertalanffy began to develop common systems teachings in lectures during the 30's, began to publish literature in 1946. In 1968 released the book "General Systems Theory: Foundations, Development, and Applications. He needed a theory to guide research in several disciplines due to striking parallels he observed between them; which rooted in theoretical biology, with an emphasis on the meaning of life. The differences between organisms and purely physico- chemical processes. Started with a general model of an "open system" to describe the contradictions between the thermodynamics of living organisms and the 2nd law of thermodynamics. Researchers begin to examine complex systems using mathematics. Scientists and theorists in numerous fields begin applying their research to G.S.T. principles; now known as the International. Society for the Systems Sciences. Systems research is applied to all scientific, social, economic, and philosophical fields.

A system is a set of things that relate to one another and form a whole. Any system has four parts: objects, attributes, internal relationships and an environment. Objects are the parts, of a system. This can either be physical or abstract depending on the type system it is. Attributes are the qualities of the system and its objects. Internal...
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