I. OVERVIEW ON PSYCHOLOGY
1. William James (1890) – Published Principles of Psychology 2. Wilhelm Wundt (1879) – Published the first Psychological lab in Leipzig 3. Sigmund Freud (1900) – Published Interpretation of Dreams 4. Alfred Biret & Theodore Simon (1905) – Developed the 1st standardized intelligence 5. Ivan Pavlov(1906) – Published the results of his learning experiments with dog tests 6. John Watson (1973) – Wrote his book on behaviorism, promoting the importance of environmental influences. 7. Burrhus F. Skinner(1938) – Published “The Behavior of Organism” expanding the view of behaviorism 8. Karen Horney(1945) – Criticized Freud’s theory as male biased and presents her socio-cultural approach 9. Carl Rogers(1951) – Published “On Becoming a Person”, developed the client-centered therapy. 10. Erik Erickson(1950) – Published Childhood and Society 11. Abraham Maslow(1954) – Introduced the humanistic perspective 12. Albert Bandura(1961) – Introduced the social learning theory 13. Roger Sperry(1981) – Won a Nobel Prize for split-brain research
EARLY VIEWS OF PSYCHOLOGY
1. Structuralism – focused on structure of basic elements of the mind. 2. Functionalism – how the mind allows people to adopt, live, work, and play. Method: observation & introspection ; Proposed by: William James. 3. Behaviorism – the science of behavior that focuses on observation behavior only. Method: Observation ; Proposed by: John B. Watson
Based from the works of Ivan Pavlov
4. Psychoanalysis – the theory and theraphy based on the work of Sigmund Freud Method : Free association
5. Gestalt Psychology – understanding of behavior depends on the perception of the configuration, organization or patterns of experience. Believed that the whole is different from the sum of the parts because the whole has a meaning derived from the relationship of the parts to each other. Proposed by: Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler
6. Humanistic Psychology – owes far more to the early roots of psychology in the field of psychology. Founders: Abraham Moslow, Carl Rogers
MODERN VIEWS/ PERSPECTIVES OF PSYCHOLOGY
1. Cognitive Approach – emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing, directing our attention, perceiving, remembering, thinking and solving problems. 2. Sociocultural/Cross Cultural – Emphasizes that culture ethnicity and gender, among other socio-cultural contexts, are essential to understanding behavior. 3. Behavioral Approach – Emphasizes the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmenthat al determinants 4. Neurobiological(behavioral natural science) – emphasizes that the brain and the nervous system play central roles in understanding behavior, thought and emotion. 5. Evolutionary – emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and the survival of the fittest. Conditions that allow individuals to thrive or fail.
Introspection – self-analysis or self-examination.
TYPES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFESSIONALS
1. Psychiatrists – a medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disasters. 2. Psychoanalyst – either a psychiatrist or a psychologist who has special training in psychoanalysis 3. Psychiatric social worker – a social worker with same training in therapy methods 4. Psychologist – a professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology
METHODS USED IN PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES
1. Experimental Method – pursues the goals of control and explanation 2. Descriptive Research – pursues the goal of description 3. Correlational research – pursues the goal of prediction
1.1 Naturalistic observation – watching animals or humans behave in their normal environment. 1.2 Laboratory observation – watching animals or humans behave in laboratory setting 2. Introspection
4. Statistical – reduces numerical data to descriptive...
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