1 Do small firms have a role in modern business?
‘History repeats itself.’ Do you agree?
To what extent is formal education effective?
‘The only victims of war are the poor or the innocent.’ Discuss.
Can the use of nuclear energy be justified?
Assess the factors which affect the distribution of population in your country.
Can mathematics be made fun, interesting and worthwhile?
Which should be medicine’s main priority – the quality or the length of life?
Assess the value of young people’s magazines today.
10 How far should the media of any society reflect the views of its leaders?
11 ‘All works of art belong in their country of origin.’ Discuss.
12 Is the money spent on museums well spent?
4 Paper 2 13 Read the following passage and then answer all the questions below. Note that up to fifteen marks will be given for the quality and accuracy of your use of English throughout this Paper. Note: When a question asks for an answer IN YOUR OWN WORDS and you select the appropriate material from the passage for your answer, you must still use your own words to express it. Little credit can be given to answers which only copy words or phrases from the passage. When we study toys from both a geographical and historical perspective, we find remarkable similarities. Toys appear in cultures isolated from one another, both in time and place, yet the doll, for example, is a toy occurring in most, if not all, civilisations. Other universal toys are balls, rattles, spinning-tops and figures of animals. It is also fascinating to observe, as we move through history into more clearly documented times, that toys occur which, despite their age and differences in form and decoration, are familiar to modern children. There are, however, considerable variations in the ways societies produce toys. In industrialised societies, leisure is separated from work and a leisure industry manufactures and markets toys. In non-industrialised societies, where work and the means of making a living are closely linked with family life, toys are usually home-made, and they are not as diverse as in industrial countries. Children are often given toys that are models of objects used by adults, and in playing with them children mimic the activities of adults as when Native American boys learn about the way of life of their parents through using such toys as miniature bows and arrows. Similarly, in the West, Action Man and Sindy Doll are a reflection of Western culture. Hence, it is no surprise that educationalists and those in related professions have given serious consideration to play and types of toys. Many psychologists consider toys and play an essential element in the social conditioning and development of children. Through play children learn to cope with the world around them. Toys for use in nurseries and schools are designed and made with specific objectives in mind, both to develop practical skills and, more subtly, to encourage desirable attitudes. Thus, some manufacturers produce toys which reflect the multicultural nature of many societies. Traditionally, there is a tendency for the more caring aspects of culture to be represented in the toys girls choose or are encouraged to play with. Boys, however, tend to be drawn to, or directed towards, construction toys, cars and aggressive play. This is observed to be the norm across most cultures. In this way, toys transmit from adults to children the ideas and values of their society. Today, toys may be divided into two groups: those that are individually handmade on a small scale and those that are mass-produced by mechanical means. Highly priced electronic toys are predominantly limited to affluent societies. In less wealthy societies, many toys are still made by traditional methods for personal use and for sale, though many of these ephemeral folk toys are now being replaced by similar but more...
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