General Anthropology: A Study of Humanity

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General Anthropology
Anthropology – study of humanity; humans and cultures
4 Sub-Fields
1. Socio-Cultural – focuses on living human cultures, global patterns of belief and behavior found in modern and historical cultures, participant observation a. Influenced behaviors, customs, traditions, beliefs

b. Non-biological of adaptation to the human environment, social and natural 2. Anthropological Linguistics – description and study of structure and history of language and relationship to culture, study of human speech and language 3. Archaeology – study of material culture of past human life and activities c. Cultural history/ chronology

d. Life ways
e. Processes
4. Study of humans as animals – evolutionary theory and genetics, physical and biological Anthropology is holistic
* Culture → Integrated system
* Biological, Ecological, Social
* Bio-Cultural Approach → feedback loop between culture and environment * NON-ETHNOCENTRIC (more than one way to view the world)
Humans are distinct: Animals, Mammals, Primates, Problem solvers, Bipedal locomotion (walk on 2 feet), Opposable thumbs, stereoscopic vision, large brain, reproduction (no estrus cycle), and culture

Chapter 1 Vocabulary
Hominins – term for members of the evolutionary group including humans and extinct bipedal relatives Bipedal – walks on two feet / legs
Primates – members of the order of mammals
Bio-cultural evolution – evolution of human biology and culture, both further influences one another, leads to understanding human evolution Ethnographies – detailed descriptive studies of human societies Paleoanthropology – study of disease and injury in human skeletal Anthropometry – measurement of human body parts

DNA – double-stranded molecule that contains genetic code Osteology – study of skeletal material
Primatology – study of biology and behavior of nonhuman primates Continuum – set of relationships in which all components fall along a single integrated spectrum (humans are a product of the same force that produced all life on earth) Empirical – relying on experiment or observation

Cultural Relativism - cultures have merits or worth within their own historical and environmental contexts

Important Names
Alfred Wallace
f. On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type (1858) g. The best adapted survived; the less well adapted perished Charles Darwin
a. On the Origin of Species. (1859)
b. Concept of Natural Selection
c. Evolution
d. isHisTheory
* All species → offspring ≥ food supply
* Variation, some more favorable
* Struggle for existence
* Variations → next generation
* Successful variations → diff. results in next species Charles Lyell
a. Uniformitarianism
Cuvier
a. Catastrophism
Gregor Mendel
a. Worked in the monastery’s garden
* Experimented with fertilization of flowers (new color variations) * Fascinated by “the regularity with which the same hybrid forms always reappeared when fertilization took place between the same species.” b. Mendel’s experiments

* Determine the number of different forms of hybrids
* Arrange them according to generations
* Attempt to evaluate the statistical relationships
c. Common Garden Pea
* Seed shape, seed color, flower color, pod shape, pod color, flower position, stem height d. Law of Segregation
* Discrete units of genetic information are passed from one generation to the next e. Different physical expressions because some traits were dominant over others * Dominant Trait
i. Visible or Measurable
ii. Prevents the appearance of the recessive trait
iii. Round is dominant
* Recessive Trait
iv. Not visible or measurable when paired with the dominant allele v. Only visible or measurable when dominant allele is absent...
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