Gender Inequality in Vietnam

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ABSTRACT
As one of the world's leading countries in the proportion of women engaged in economic activity and 1st ranking in the Asia Pacific region on the proportion of women in the National Assembly, Vietnam is considered one of the leading advances in the field of gender equality. Vietnam has the appropriate policies to ensure equal rights for men and women and has made significant progress to reduce the gender gap in health and education as well as improve the situation of women women in general. However, these achievements have not purely synchronous and along with that progress there still exists several shortcomings. Moreover, with the transition process to more and more expanding market economy, the challenges of gender equality are changing in parallel with the structural transformation of the labor market to meet the economic growth as present. While growth brings new opportunities, gender inequalities in access to productive resources and training opportunities has restricted the ability of women to compete. This paper provides the reality of gender inequality in labor field in Vietnam and give some opinions to prevent sexism and promote sexual equality”.

1. Reality of gender equality in labor filed in Vietnam
The essence of the phrase "gender equality" can be understood as the equality between men and women and is one of the basic issues of human rights. The more society develops the more people pay attention to sexual equality. Gender equality presents in all fields of social life, including labor field. Gender equality is not simply the number of male and female participating in the labor process and it does not mean that men and women are the same, regardless of the psychological and physical factors and social factors. Sexual equality in labor field means that men and women have the same social position to participate and work in the labor process; the similarities and differences of men and women (gender point of view and gender) are recognized and valued equally to fully promote the potential of each gender; both male and female labors have the fair opportunity, obligations and benefits in the same labor according to certain principles. However, in the field of labor in our country, does gender equality actually exist or are there any shortcomings which create the sexual inequality? Recent researches have proved that in Vietnam labor field, gender inequality still exits as indicated in the following aspects: Gender discrimination caused by the impact of Confucianism

Confucianism, the most typical representative of the patriarchy in Vietnam has showned ancient social structure containing the relationship between Person – Home; Nation – World. Mencius said that world is created by Nation. Nation is rooted by Home; Home has the origin of Person. People (men - the author's note) must firstly study and cultivation (Self-improve must follow standards of human, kindness and prestige), then to build and manage their homes to the best and then rise to national management (governance) and rule other countries. According to that trend men will build dominance and social stability ever after. In view of the after Confucianism, Three Moral Bonds is three basic relationship in the society: King and subject, Father and child, Husband and wife. These are three inequal relationship in classed society. On that basis, those who do well for others is the leader and most powerful in society and family. In this structure, women are in social groups "I", "child", "wife" which is the subject to bear the absolute education and dominance of men. Confucianism also considered women equally to the sub-human, to be despised, not much ignored. According to Confucius, only women and the small-minded is difficult to teach. Therefore, to talk about male-ruled society, people often referred to as mode “sexism". Confucianism supposed that unconditionally serving for men is the function, tasks and women's natural role. The concepts...
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