Gender Inequality in the Third World

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Race, Crime and Criminology
j.byrne1@ulster.ac.uk Week 10

Lecture structure
Language and policy around race and ethnicity Changes in society BME in the criminal justice system Explanations Contemporary examples Racial profiling

Lecture outcomes
Develop an understanding about race and ethnicity Consider the differences in people’s race/ethnicity and whether it is a factor in relation to numbers within the CJS Examine in depth the rationale behind racial

Language
Race – traditionally been used to distinguish between groups on the basis of supposed biological differences Ethnicity – refers more broadly to groups possessing some degree of solidarity based on culture, descent and territory Racism– way of describing the beliefs and practices that can result in people being discriminated against on the basis of their perceived ethnic

Policy and legislation
Race Relations Act (1976) subsequent Race Relations Act (2000) Unlawful to discriminate against anyone on the grounds of race, colour, nationality, or ethnic or national origin The Crime and Disorders Act (1998) established a new set of racially aggravated offences – hate crime

Society has significantly changed
Rivers of blood speech by Conservative MP Enoch Powell (1968) shaped future direction of immigration policy in the UK He predicted that “in this country in fifteen or twenty years’ time the black man will have the whip hand over the white man” Criticised immigration (open-door policy) Relaxed immigration laws responsible for crime and disorder

Collecting data
1981 landmark year in the context of British Race Relations – recognition of ethnic minorities as victims Home Office published Racial Attacks, its inaugural report highlighting evidence of the racist harassment directed at minority ethnic communities It is only since1981 that local and central government agencies have kept records of

BME people as victims and offenders (Newburn, 2007)
People from BME backgrounds slightly more likely to be at risk of victimisation across all categories 2010/11 BCS – there was a statistically significant fall in the risk of being a victim of personal crime for members of the White group (2010/11) 51,187 recorded racist incidents – that represents a 18% decrease from 2006 Black people six times more likely to be victims of murder than white people People from ethnic minorities are more fearful than

Explanations
Generally speaking, minority ethnic groups are disproportionality victimised, in part because of where they live – in poorer urban areas – and partly because they tend to be a younger population. They may also suffer from less police concern and protection (Webster, 2007) The social geography of robbery (Hallsworth, 2005) and homicide (Dorling, 2005) shows the links between these crimes and social exclusion – from this perspective it is poverty rather than ethnicity that is the key explanatory variable But…Smith (1989) Racism interacts with class disadvantage to produce patterns of social inequality experienced differently by minority ethnic communities The problems may start at school. The study shows that black children are three times more likely to be permanently excluded from education (Equality Commission, 2010)

Explanations
Racial Profiling – the use of race or ethnic appearance as a factor in deciding who merits police attention as a suspicious person (Harris, 2002: 8) Cultural differences – some argued that cultures of crime or ‘resistance’ are imported to the country (Gilroy, 1987) Criticised because it over-simplifies the cultural complexities of life and ignores notion of

Tony Blair – 2007 put it down to Black Culture
Seven knife/gun murders in London first 5 months Not caused by poverty but a distinctive black culture – not part of a general crime wave, but specific to black youth Needed to be an intense police focus on the minority of

Wider criminal justice system (Cavadino and Dignan, 2007)
Black people are arrested in numbers...
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