Gender Inequality in Household Water Supply; a Case Study of Ibadan

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Water is a fundamental basic need and an essential resource for economic activities with strong cultural and symbolic values for millions of people especially in developing countries. A domestic water supply is universally acknowledged as not only a basic right but a key development indicator. It is also accepted as an excellent entry point to reaching the poorest women who have the responsibility of finding domestic water supplies. Poor women disproportionately bear the burden of the unpaid chores of fetching water for domestic uses. In Ibadan city, women and girls are almost exclusively responsible for domestic chores and for maintaining hygiene in the household. Intra-household water collection from a gender perspective has remained a relatively under-researched theme in many countries. Nigeria is no exception, with the lack of research particularly evident in the many rural and peri-urban communities. Water is necessary not only for drinking, but also for food production and preparation, care of domestic animals, personal hygiene, care of the sick, cleaning, washing and waste disposal. For instance, man for the sustenance of life needs water and it is the second most important natural resources used by man after air (Walton, 1970). One third of the world’s population is currently experiencing some kind of physical or economic water scarcity (IFAD 2001a). A growing competition for water from different sectors, including industry, agriculture, power generation, domestic use, and the environment, is making it difficult for people to access this scarce resource for productive, consumptive and social uses. In water-scarce regions and countries, inequity in access to water resources is increasing because of competition for limited resources, and this particularly affects poor rural people, especially women. In many developing countries women and girls are responsible for collecting water from remote sources for use in the home which often leads to health problems, safety issues and a lack of time for schooling, income generation or community participation. Globally, women are involved (along with men) in using water for daily household chores, however, despite their obvious interaction with and knowledge about water, women often lack a voice in household water management discussions and decision- making while they bear a bulk of the burden in household water collection (Osagbemi and Adepetu, 2001).

The major problems of water collection in Nigeria is the exemption of certain gender among households in the activities of water provision for the entire household and the hazards and dangers that household members tasked with the responsibility of fetching water face in the bid to provide water for the entire household.

The research is aimed at the determination of gender disparity in household water collection in Ibadan as well as its contributing factors. 1.3.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study is to provide preliminary data on gender related issues in household water collection in Ibadan region of Nigeria. The research objectives that this study would focus primarily upon include; • To determine the gender majorly involved in household water collection within the region of study. • To analyze the factors of time and distance travelled in household water collection within the study area. • To consider the influence of parents’ occupation and educational status on household water collection activities. • To compare the various water sources which are commonly favored by the different gender in household water collection.

The following hypotheses would be tested for the study
➢ There is no correlation between age, time of water fetching, water source, distance travelled, household size and father’s occupation in...
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