Gender Dysphoria and the Persecution of Transgender People

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The morality of sex has been given wide attention because it is a principle to differentiate between proper sexual behavior and improper sexual behaviour. Since the sexual act is connected with the giving birth to children (human reproduction),it despite being a very private and intimate matter. People normally born with only one sex either male or female. There are people who unsatisfied with their own sex which most probably happen in man,they undergo gender reassignment therapy to make themselves a real woman. In 20th century, issue regarding sex exchange is still a rare and unprecedented case. Einar Mogens Wegener make an outstanding decision that he want to undergoes sex exchange,he is one of the first identifiable recipients of male to female sex reassignment therapy which after that named himself as Lili Elbe. In 1930,the medical technology is still not advanced enough to make sure the sex exchange operation can be successfully done but he still determined with his own decision. He went through a series of five operations over a period of two years. However, three months after her last operation, he died. His cause of death is believed to have transplant rejection. He is a pioneer to the history of sex exchange. In the aspect of psychology,the cause of human being who unsatisfied with their own sex and strong willing to undergo sex exchange is due to ‘gender dysphoria’ but the cause of gender dysphoria is still an unknown. Recently, scientific evidence suggests that there are biological influences before birth. This imply that gender identity, along with other physical characteristics, is established long before environmental factors influence individual socialisation. A recent experiment suggests that both biology and some environment influences may play a role in determining gender identity. In the medical model, transsexual men and women are diagnosed with gender dysphoria and gender identity disorder. In the DSM IV the American Psychiatric Association presents several components of what it calls ‘gender identity disorder’: * a strong and persistent cross-gender identification, which is the desire to be, or the insistence that one is, of the other sex * not merely a desire for any perceived cultural advantages of being the other sex but evidence of a persistent discomfort about one’s biologically assigned sex * clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning. While some forms of gender identity dysphoria may be temporary and thus transsexualism is immutable. However, the costs of sex reassignment surgery vary. According to the data collected through internet,Female to male surgery in Toronto costs approximately $10,000 to $12,000.In the UK, where the Gender Identity clinic of the Clark Institute of Psychiatry used to sent its clients, male to female surgery costs approximately £9,000 (approximately $18,000 Canadian). The information that is available on costs of sex reassignment surgery indicates that in the United States male to female surgery can cost between $10,000 and $28,000 (U.S.). According to the 1996 British Columbia law reform project on human rights and the transgendered community, male to female sex reassignment surgery ranges from between $5,000 and $10,000. Female to male sex reassignment surgery costs considerably more, ranging from $20,000 to more than $60,000. Under legal and medical issues,the authors note that the legal system and the medical system have engaged in the ‘medicalisation of identity’. For example, the courts ask whether, medically speaking, a person is a woman or a man. In Ontario, the government interpretation of the Vital Statistics Act requires a medical letter and sex reassignment surgery before allowing a change in the birth certificate. Government policies for other documentation vary, but many ask for medical proof that the individual is transsexual instead of accept...
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