Fiber is the part of plants that the body cannot digest easily. Fiber is found in fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds, dried, beans, split peas and lentils. There is no dietary fiber in meat or dairy products. Fiber includes the cell walls of plants (cellulose) and other substances found in plants such as pectin and gums. TYPES OF COMMERCIAL FIBER:
There are following types of commercial fibers.
* Plant fiber
* Glass fiber
* Textile fiber
* Natural fiber
* Food fiber
* Synthetic fiber
With the exception of synthetic polymers, most economically important products, such as paper, cordage (cords and rope) and textile, are derived from plan fibers. Fibers are elongate cells with tapering ends and very thick, heavily lignified cell walls. Fiber cells are dead at maturity and function as support tissue, in plant stem and roots. The lumen and cavity inside mature, dead fiber cells is very small when viewed in cross section. Fibers are one of the components of sclerenchyma tissue, along with shorter, thick walled sclereids (stone cells) which produce the hard tissue of peach pits and the greety texture in pairs. Fibers are also associated with xylem and phloem tissue of monocots and dicot stems and roots, but generally not in the wood of gymnosperms. Infact , the primary reason why gymnosperm woods are generally soften and lighter than angiosperm woods is the presence in angiosperm wood of dense cluster of heavily lignified, thick Walled fiber cells.
These fibers comes from the cell walls of edible plant tissues and in the seeds and gummy sap of certain plants. It is not from bast fibers and trachieds, plant gums are all complex polysaccharides composed of many sub unit. Plant gums are commonly used as thickening agents and emulsifiers. In addition to its use in foods, hand lotions and soaps. It is used in fine water colours, inks and confections. It also produces the water soluble adhesive on postage stamps and “lace curtain” on the side of beer glass. Plant gums also provide the soluble fiber in a healthy diet by absorbing water and adding bulk to a large intestine. Several dietary supplements contain the powered husk of psyllium seeds from plantain. In soluble fibers come from the indigestible cellulose cell wall of fruit and vegetables. Fibers are also the basic component of wood products, such as paper. One of the earliest records for making sheets of paper dates back at least 5500 years ago to the ancient Egyptians who pressed together thin strips of papyrus stems (Cyperus papyrus) to write on. Egyptian papyrus belongs to the sedge family (cyperaceae). The inner pith of the stems was cut into the strips after removing the outer epidermal layer. The strips than laid side- by- side and over one another at right angles to form two overlapping layers, one vertical and one horizontal. Transparent view of papyrus paper shown below is the overlapping stems of Cyperus papyrus which have been pressed together. This is one of the earliest types of paper made by people.
These are made from unicellur hairs that grow out from the surface of the seed immediately after fertilization. The hairs are twisted into useable thread which is tough and strong in the cotton gin, fine brushes pull the lind off the seed by drying it through holes too fine for the seeds to pass. Cotton is the textile produced in the largest volume world wide.
Ancient Egyptians made container of coarse fibers drawn from heat softened glass. The French scientist, Reaumur, considered the potential of forming fine glass fiber woven glass articles as early as 18th cenyury. The continuous glass fibers were first manufactured in substantial quantities by Owens Corning Textile Products in the 1930’s for high temperature electrical applications. Revolutionary and evolutionary technology continues to improve manufacturing processes for continuous glass fiber...
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