The increasing demand of electrical power in cities and industrial centres necessitates the installation of a compact and efficient distribution and transmission network. High voltage gas insulated switchgear (GIS) is ideal for such applications. The range of application of SF₆ Gas Insulated Switchgear extends from voltage ratings of 72.5 kV up to 800 kV with breaking currents of up to 63 kA, and in special cases up to 80 kA. Both small transformer substations and large load- centre substations can be designed with GIS technology. The distinctive advantages of SF₆ Gas Insulated Switchgear are: compact, low weight, high reliability, safety against touch contact, low maintenance and long life. Extensive in-plant preassembly and testing of large units and complete bays reduces assembly and commissioning time on the construction site. GIS equipment is usually of modular construction. All components such as bus bars, disconnectors, circuit-breakers, instrument transformers, cable terminations and joints are contained in earthed enclosures filled with sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF₆).
Fig. 1 gas insulated substation
Fig. parts of substation
2 -WHY DO WE NEED GIS (Gas Insulated Substation):-
Gas Insulated Substations are used where there is space for providing the substation is expensive in large cities and towns. In normal substation the clearances between the phase to phase and phase to ground is very large. Due to this, large space is required for the normal or Air Insulated Substation (AIS). But the dielectric strength of SF6 gas is higher compared to the air, the clearances required for phase to phase and phase to ground for all equipments are quite lower. Hence, the overall size of each equipment and the complete substation is reduced to about 10% of the conventional air insulated substation. Extremely high dielectric properties of SF6 have long been recognized. Compressed SF6 has been used as an insulating medium as well as arc quenching medium in electrical apparatus in a wide range of voltages.Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) can be used for longer times without any periodical inspections. Conducting contamination (i.e. aluminum, copper and silver particles) could, however, seriously reduce the dielectric strength of gas-insulated system.Gas insulated Substations have found a broad range applications in power systems over the last three decades because of their high reliability Easy maintenance, small ground space requirements etc... a) Such installations are preferred in cosmopolitan cities, industrial townships, etc., where cost of land is very high and higher cost of SF6 insulated switchgear is justified by saving due to reduction in floor area requirement. It is not necessary that high voltage or extra high voltage switchgear to be installed outdoors. b) Since most of the construction is modular and the assembly is done in the works, one site erection time both for supporting structures and switchgear is greatly reduced.
Fig. 2 why do we need gas insulated substation
3-LOCATIONS WHERE GAS INSULATED SUBSTATION ARE PREFERRED:-
i. Large cities and towns
ii. Under ground stations
iii. Highly polluted and saline environment Indoor GIS occupies very little space iv. Substations and power stations located Off shore
v. Mountains and valley regions
Explanation: - The SF6 Gas Insulated Substation (GIS) contains the same compartments as in the conventional outdoor substations. All the live parts are enclosed in metal housings filled with SF6 gas. The live parts are supported on cast resin insulators. Some of the insulators are designed as barriers between neighboring modules such that the gas does not pass through them. The entire installation is sub divided into compartments which are gas tight with respect to each other. Thereby the gas monitoring system of each compartment can be independent and simpler. The enclosures are of non magnetic...