Department of Psychology
Mr. Alex Lui
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
When people hear about intelligence, the first thought that immediately appeared to mind are someone who is good in science, has a higher IQ, can solve arithmetic problems well or those who are really good in calculating and writing. Dr. Gardner, one of the best psychologists has demonstrated through his study that the statement above is unproven. He was the first who introduced the Multiple Intelligences theory to the society (Gardner, 1983). The concept of Gardner's theory partially comes from his experience in working with people who are not supported in physically, even mentally (Gardner). For example, he found some autistic children have an exceptional musical and mathematical talent even though their social skills are disturbed. According to Gardner (1993), intelligence is a problem solving ability to solve difficulties and create products that are valuable in some cultural settings. Gardner himself has identified nine different types of intelligence that potentially owned by each individual, which are consist of linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, musical-rhythmic intelligence, bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence, spatial intelligence, naturalist intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, and existential intelligence. It means if there is nobody has the exact same level of intelligence, not even the twins. Some people may only master in certain area and some people might master in variety of areas, without any exceptions. That is what he called as Multiple Intelligences. The idea of this theory comes from the way Gardner defines intelligence as an ability to create some effective solutions and products that are valuable in at least more than one cultural (Gardner, 1998). By stating this statement, Gardner expands the meaning of intelligence by including various aspects outside the normal academic fields which he believes will be useful for people in the culture where they live in. Gardner and his colleagues did a survey of their theory research by collecting some information from a wide range of sources, included descriptions of special populations (Gardner, 1983). The populations could be included autistic children, mental disability people, normal savants, and people from different kinds of work or different cultures. The result states that Intelligence behaviour doesn’t derive from a unity cell, but they are generated from variety of different cell types of brain, which is allowing the individual to solve problems that are valuable in cultural settings (Gardner). Based on the result, Gardner (1998) used some criteria to classify these types of intelligences, included an ability that can be increased through the lifetime become an independent skill. Another scientist, David Perkins (1995) also did a research to learn about intelligence and the way to increase IQ development by analyzed some educational theories and approaches to the education which his analysis strongly supports Gardner’s theory. Gardner (1998) actually has strong evidence to support his theory. He prefers to rely on case studies and real life situations instead of using written test. The most convincing study that Gardner figured out is the intelligence of stroke victims. When we find someone who suffers from stroke, it is the fact if they would lose their physical ability, but they still can accomplish their task. It explains that the idea of intelligence each controlled separately. Another study found by Gardner (1983) is, there are some children who are talented in different areas, which is means if they have different types of intelligence. Some were good in musical and logic, and yet another child might be good in naturalist and interpersonal skills. The same with personalities, Gardner realized if everyone...