Gaps Model

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THE GAP MODEL OF SERVICE QUALITY

Service Quality


Quality of the service is the degree of conformance of all the relevant features and characteristics of service to all the aspects of the consumers’ needs limited by the price and delivery s/he will accept. Quality can be viewed from two perspectives:

 

Internal quality
specifications

based on conformance to based on customer-perceived

External quality
quality

Importance Of Quality For Service Marketers
Gain competitive advantage, maintain loyalty Increase value (may permit higher margins) Improve profits

The Gaps Model of Service Quality

Gaps Model of Service Quality
Expected Service
Customer Gap

CUSTOMER

Perceived Service
Service Delivery External Communications to Customers

COMPANY
Gap 3 Gap 1 Gap 2

Gap 4

Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards Company Perceptions of Consumer Expectations

Gaps Model of Service Quality


 





Customer Gap:  difference between customer expectations and perceptions Provider Gap 1 (The Knowledge Gap):  not knowing what customers expect, want, need Provider Gap 2 (The Service Design & Standards Gap):  not having the right service designs and standards Provider Gap 3 (The Service Performance Gap):  not delivering to service standards Provider Gap 4 (The Communication Gap):  not matching performance to promises

Not Knowing What Customers Expect

Gap 1

Customer Expectations

•Inadequate marketing research orientation •Lack of upward communication •Insufficient relationship focus •Inadequate service Company Perceptions of Customer recoveryExpectations

Not Selecting The Right Service Designs And Standards
Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards

Gap 2

• Poor service design • Absence of customer driven standards • Inappropriate physical evidence and services gap Management Perceptions of Customer Expectations

Not Delivering To Service Designs And Standards
Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards

Gap 3

•Deficiencies in human resource policies •Customers who do not fulfill roles •Problems with service intermediaries • Failure to match supply and demand Service Delivery

Not Matching Performance To Promises
Service Delivery

Gap 4

•Lack of integrated services marketing communications . •Ineffective management of customer expectations . •Overpromising . •Inadequate horizontal communications .

External Communications to Customers

Focus on the consumer – Customer Gap

Gaps Model of Service Quality
Expected Service CUSTOMER
Customer Gap

COMPANY

Perceived Service
Service Delivery External Communications to Customers

Gap 1

Gap 4

Gap 3
Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards

Gap 2
Company Perceptions of Consumer Expectations

 The

central focus of the gaps model is the customer gap, the difference between customer expectations and perceptions.  Expectations are the reference points customers have coming in to a service experience.  Perceptions reflect the service as actually received.

How Consumers Evaluate Goods and Services

Most goods

Most services

Easy to evaluate
Restaurant meals Medical diagnosis Television repair Legal services Automobiles Clothing Jewelry Furniture Houses Vacation Auto repair Child care Root canal Haircuts

Difficult to evaluate

High in search properties

High in experience properties

High in credence properties

Consumer Choice

Customer Expectation Of Service

HIGH

LOW

Dual customer expectations levels and the Zone of Tolerance Desired Service

ZONE OF TOLERANCE

Adequate Service

Desired Service Level Of Expectation ZONE OF TOLERANCE Desired Service

Adequate Service

ZONE OF TOLERANCE

Adequate Service

Reliability

Tangibles

Lasting Service Intensifiers Desired Service

Personal Needs ZONE OF TOLERANCE

Adequate Service

Lasting Service Intensifiers

Desired Service Personal...
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