Abstract The purpose of the study is to identify the main factor which influences secondary students in the gangsterism social activity focused in four states such as in Johore, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan and Selangor. In the research, 400 from 4 states were chosen. The data were collected using questionnaire which was adopted from Gangs Activities Perception Questionnaire (FAPQ) and Perceptions Toward Youth Gangs. The alpha cronbach for this instrument was 0.8432. Students reported that overall rate on the gangsterisme which is at moderate level of prevalence still remains at low level.
According to Utusan Malaysia (1998), the social phenomenon of gangsterisme has shown to increase the rate of vandalism, threatening and drug addicts among the teenagers. One third of 1560 secondary school in our country, Malaysia has high risk to being exposed with ‘underground society’ (Berita Harian, 1997). By this group of teenagers who break the norms are often being categorized as a deviant and delinquent. They are often involved in drug addicting, playing truants, raping, homosexual and lesbian. Surprisingly, the number of female students and primary school students are increasingly involved in gangsterisme nowadays. According to Thrasher (1963), at the earlier stage of teenagers, they have higher tendency to form a gang. In the earlier report in 1961, Thrasher also defined gang as a group with same characteristics such as, appearance, action, conflict and planning. As a result of evolution, this group of gang will eventually develop into a group of gangster who often carries out activities that is anti-social. On the other hand, Miller in 1980 defined a gang who carries out illegal acts. In addition, Klein & Maxson who are agreeable with Miller, emphasized 3 criteria of a gang that can be concluded as being recognized negatively by society as well as the law of this country. Taylor in 1993 referred to 4 different criteria of a gang in terms of their function and activities that include their structure, leadership, territories and interaction among the group. 1
According to Haslina Hassan (2000), delinquents are often found in older males who do illegal acts outside school compound. This is in along with Bodinger-de-Uriarte (1993) who found that power and status are one of the major determinants for teenagers to join in the activities of gangsterisme in the United States of America. Gaustad (1991) found that the appearance of gangsters who had interfered the teaching and learning process in the school and affected other students’ study environment. Hence, we need to pay more attention and carry out strategies that can solve above problem, as mentioned by Lal et. al. (1993).
In relevant with the above statements, this article aimed to identify (1)the major determinants of gangsterisme in school, looking into the aspect of peer group, individuals, family and media influences. It also explored (2) the prevalence of gangsterisme occurring among students as well as (3) the characteristics of gangster from the aspect of symbolism, attire and style. Besides, (4)activities such as threatening acts, clumsily painting at walls, not showing respect at teachers, scolding and insulting acts as well as playing truants are to be identified in its significant correlations with the academic achievement and family income.
The determinants of gangsterisme
There are a few determinants of gangsterisme in school that includes influences from peer group, individual, family and mass media (Cindy, Tursman and Moore, 1930). According to Artwater in 1998, peer group is defined as the same age group of people who plays around, grow up together or buddy who strive...