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For other uses, see Game (disambiguation).
Tug of war is an easily organized, impromptu game that requires little equipment.
The Card Players, a 1895 painting by Paul Cézanne depicting a game of cards. A game is structured playing, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more often an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work (such as professional players of spectator sports/games) or art (such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as Mahjong, solitaire, or some video games). Key components of games are goals, rules, challenge, and interaction. Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulational, or psychological role. Attested as early as 2600 BC, games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures. The Royal Game of Ur, Senet, and Mancala are some of the oldest known games. Contents [hide]
1.1 Ludwig Wittgenstein
1.2 Roger Caillois
1.3 Chris Crawford
1.4 Other definitions
2 Gameplay elements and classification
2.3 Skill, strategy, and chance
2.4 Single-player games
3.1.1 Lawn games
3.2 Tabletop games
3.2.1 Dexterity and coordination games
3.2.2 Board games
3.2.3 Card games
3.2.4 Dice games
3.2.5 Domino and tile games
3.2.6 Pencil and paper games
3.2.7 Guessing games
3.3 Video games
3.3.1 Online games
3.4 Role-playing games
3.5 Business games
4 See also
6 Further reading
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Ludwig Wittgenstein was probably the first academic philosopher to address the definition of the word game. In his Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein demonstrated that the elements of games, such as play, rules, and competition, all fail to adequately define what games are. Wittgenstein concluded that people apply the term game to a range of disparate human activities that bear to one another only what one might call family resemblances. Roger Caillois
French sociologist Roger Caillois, in his book Les jeux et les hommes (Games and Men), defined a game as an activity that must have the following characteristics: fun: the activity is chosen for its light-hearted character
separate: it is circumscribed in time and place
uncertain: the outcome of the activity is unforeseeable
non-productive: participation does not accomplish anything useful governed by rules: the activity has rules that are different from everyday life fictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of a different reality Chris Crawford
Computer game designer Chris Crawford attempted to define the term game using a series of dichotomies: Creative expression is art if made for its own beauty, and entertainment if made for money. A piece of entertainment is a plaything if it is interactive. Movies and books are cited as examples of non-interactive entertainment. If no goals are associated with a plaything, it is a toy. (Crawford notes that by his definition, (a) a toy can become a game element if the player makes up rules, and (b) The Sims and SimCity are toys, not games.) If it has goals, a plaything is a challenge. If a challenge has no "active agent against whom you compete," it is a puzzle; if there is one, it is a conflict. (Crawford admits that this is a subjective test. Video games with noticeably algorithmic artificial intelligence can be played as puzzles; these include the patterns used to evade ghosts in Pac-Man.) Finally, if the player can only outperform the opponent, but not attack them...