Gamelan, Dikir Barat, & Wayang Kulit

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The word 'gamelan' originated from the Javanese word 'gamel' which means to hit, or to beat. Gamelan was originally from Indonesia, and came to Tanah Melayu, specifically the town of Pekan, Pahang, from Riau-Lingga around the year 1811. It was brought as entertainment during the royal wedding of Tengku Hussain, son of Sultan Abdul Rahman from Lunnga, to Wan Esah, the sister of Bendahara Ali of Pahang. This was during the time of Sultan Ahmad Muadzam Shah's ruling. Back then, the gamelan was played mainly as entertainment for the royal families only.

The gamelan next came to Terengganu between the years 1914 and 1914 through the inter-marriage of Pahang princess Tengku Ampuan Mariam to Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Syah of Terengganu. Together, they brought the gamelan to its glory days. According to Tengku Mariam, there were originally up to 77 gamelan dances and songs, but today only around 30 of them still exist, and only around 12 of them are regularly performed. A large amount of the original gamelans songs were lost when the original players died, and World War II came.

More than 20 years later, in 1966, a man named Tan Sri Haji Mubin Sheppard, meaning to preserve Malay architecture, discovered the long abandoned gamelan instruments locked away in Istana Kolam in Terengganu. The discovery led to the rebirth of the Malay gamelan. The former musicians were reunited, and new dancers were recruited and guided by Mak Nang, a former court singer and dancer. For the first time, the gamelan was performed for public viewing when it was brought to Universti Malaya in Kuala Lumpur.

Gamelan is not just one instrument, rather it is an ensemble of several instruments. Gamelan uses tuned percussion instruments similar to xylophones and gongs. The ensemble typically include two steel xylophones called a saron: saron barong, which plays the main melody, and the saron pekin, which is smaller and higher-pitched, another steel xylophone called a gender, a set of...
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