Lecture 3. Gupta Art and its influence on the Silk Road Outline : 1. Golden Age of Indian Buddhist Art : Gupta Period (320-550 CE) a. Gupta Culture --- Science, Mathematics, Medicine, Literature, Religion, Art b. Gupta Art in Ajanta Cave --Sculpture, architecture --Mural Paintings c. Buddha image in Gupta Art and its influence 2. Transmission of Buddhism & Buddhist Art along Silk Road a. Northern Routes (inland routes): Afghanistan, Central Asia, China b. Southern Routes (sea routes): South Asia, Southeast Asia ◎ Readings (★ required reading, must read) ★Leidy, Denise Patry, The art of Buddhism : an introduction to its history and meaning, Boston : Shambhala, 2008. Chap.3, [704.948943 L52 a] Foltz, Richard, Buddhism in the Iranian World, The Muslim World • Volume 100 • April/July 2010, p.204-214. Bussagli, Mario. 5000 years of the art of India, New York : H. N. Abrams, , Chap.5,6,7,8. [709.24 B98 ] Thomas Knierim, Introduction to Buddhism, E-resources. http://www.thebigview.com/download/buddhism.pdf Higuchi, Tagayashu, Bamiyan : Buddhist Cave Temples in Afghanistan, World Archaeology, Oct95, Vol. 27 Issue 2, p282-302, Tucker, Jonathan, The Silk Road : art and history, London : Philip Wilson, 2003, Chap.3-4. [LB 915.16 T88] WAUGH, DANIEL C, THE SILK ROADS IN HISTORY. Expedition, Winter2010, Vol. 52 Issue 3, p9-22, 14p.
◎ E-Resources :
◎ Timelines of Art History http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/timelines/tl002.html ◎ Timeline of Indian History http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/timeline/timeline.htm ◎ Key Image Resources : 1. The Huntington Archive 1
BSTC 2010 Introduction to Buddhist Art
http://huntingtonarchive.osu.edu/database.php 2. V & A Museum : http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/b/buddhist-pilgrimage-sites-india/ 3. 32 attributes of the Buddha http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/iconography-of-the-buddha/ 4. Professor
Sarah E. Fraser’s “Buddhist art in Asia”--India
http://buddhist-art.arthistory.northwestern.edu/arthistory_240/buddhist-india-1.html# ◎ Timeline on the Buddhist Activities Along the Silk Road Periods 560s BC 484 BC 484-494 350-300 272-231 272-231 Events Buddha's birth Buddha's death The First Council in Rajagriha. The second Council in Vaishali. Buddhism flourished in India under king Ashoka. Missionary activity started under Ashoka's reign. The first known carving of monumental shrines into the sides of 272-231 mountains appeared in Bihar, India 250 The Third council of Buddhist monks met at Patna in Ashoka's reign. 100BC-200AD Buddhism flourished in Kushan. 0-100AD Mahayana school appeared. 0s Buddhist settlement in Airtam-Termez, Bactria Gandhara art school flourished. Art form of Buddha images 100 introduced from Gandhara. The site was destroyed by Hephthalites in 6th century. 144-172 Kushan ruler, Kanishka disseminated Buddhism. An Shih-kao, a Parthian missionary arrived China. Scriptures 148 translations. Chu-sho-fu, an Indian missionary arrived China. Scripture 170 translations. 181 An Hsuan, Parthian missionary arrived China. 200s Buddhist shrine at Giaur Kala (Merv). Che K'ien Yueh-chih missionary translated several Buddhist writings 223-253 into Chinese in China. 300s Buddhist stupa at Merv (Iran). Buddhist settlements at Hadda, Afghanistan. Destroyed by the 300s Hephthalites in 450. Buddhist community established and the world's largest statue of 300s 53-memter Buddha created at Bamiyan. The site was destroyed by Genghis Khan in 1222, but the statues remain. Sassano-Buddhic art seen Kabul valley and penetrated into the Tarim 300s basin. 2
BSTC 2010 Introduction to Buddhist Art
300s 344-413 366 395-414 450-750 446 450-494 494 500s 515-528 520 520 553-582 550s 629-644 682-745 800s 845 1258 1307-1311
Anti-Buddhist propaganda of Varahran IIs adviser, Kartir, the Mazdean evangelist in Sasania (Persia). Kumarajiva, Indian pilgrim, built the largest Buddhist text translation bureau in China....