Ridgecrest School Dispute Initial Report
Teachers’ Association
11/15/12
In order to maximize combined interests and reach the Pareto Efficient Frontier, our strategy is to build trust by sharing information about our interests and priorities. In addition, sharing information can help create a positive relationship with the Board of Education and can increase the chances that they will reciprocate that behavior by giving away information about their interests and priorities. Given that many people are reluctant to share information with the other side, we also plan on asking the Board of Education many questions so that we can learn from what is not said as well as from what is said. Another strategy we will use to create value is to make multiple offers simultaneously because it helps to collect valuable information and it makes us appear more flexible. This is a particularly important strategy given that we can compromise on various issues if the other side is willing to offer us some concessions on other matters in return. For instance, we would be willing to accept a formula in which any pay received for performing civic duty would be deducted from regular pay if the board is willing to meet our demands for salary acceptably (See planning document for what is acceptable). The costcutting strategy is useful in that it allows for one party to get what it wants while the other has the costs associated with its concession reduced or eliminated. This is a strategy we will use by proposing to the other side a budget that we have come up with that minimizes our concessions while still allowing them to get what they want (See attached Budget Proposal). We have prepared this budget so that when the other side claims that there is no other way expenditures can be cut, we can show them an alternative solution. In addition, we also want to trade off differences in interests and priorities in order to create value. We plan on doing this by trading issues...
...Beauty Contest Experiment
The experiment executed in the seminar was very simple. Players had to choose a number between 0 and 100. The objective is to choose a number based on your guess of the mean guesses of the group and multiply it by 2/3. It is called the Beauty contest Experiment because it was based on a theory John Maynard Keynes proposed on the relationship of the stock market with beauty contests conducted in newspapers of his time. In this report I will examine the logic behind choosing the best response strategy in theory and compare it with the actual results of the experiment conducted. From the comparison I will provide justification for why the theory is different from reality by also comparing it to examples in real life.
To understand the underlying logic of the game’s strategy one must understand the Nash Equilibrium. Princeton University’s Website (an excellent source since John Nash the person who came up with the Equilibrium attended that university) defines Nash Equilibrium as “a solution concept of a game involving two or more players, in which each player is assumed to know the equilibrium strategies of the other players, and no player has anything to gain by changing only his or her own strategy unilaterally. If each player has chosen a strategy and no player can benefit by changing his or her strategy while the other players keep theirs unchanged, then the current set of...
...A better understanding of other people contributes to the development of moral values. We shall be both kinder and fairer in our treatment of others, if we understand them better. Understanding ourselves and understanding others are connected, since as human beings, we all have things in common.
Adapted from Anne Sheppard, “Aesthetics: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Art”
Do we need other people in order to understand ourselves? Plan and write an essay in which you develop your point of view on this issue. Support your position with reasoning and examples taken from your reading, studies, experience, or observations.
To understand ourselves is not an easy thing to do. From ancient times, the question of knowing ourselves has been the focus of many philosophers, such as Socrates and Buda. They argue that, even though you cannot arrive at perfect answers, you should keep asking yourself, “Who am I?” The lessons of the ancient philosophers have truly helped me to develop my moral values and know myself, through meditation and inner awareness. However, there are other ways to gain selfknowledge: one way is to ourselves by striving to understand others. Khaled Hosseini’s characters, Amir and Baba, in “the Kite Runner” provide mirrors for me. Also Walter Isaacson’s “Steve Jobs” – the authorized biography of Apple’s genius – allows me to see inside the façade of the public Steve Jobs, and gain some understanding of myself.
The relationship between Amir and his...
...110976
MOSES NGONE 10
PRESENTED TO: Mr. MORIASI MARANGA
DUE DATE: 29TH OCTOBER 2013
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS
ATHIRIVER CAMPUS
Table of Contents
GameTheory 3
History and impact of gametheory 5
Gametheory and information systems 6
Definition of key terms 6
Dominance 8
Nash equilibrium 8
Mixed strategies 9
Extensive games with perfect information 9
Extensive games with imperfect information 10
Zerosum games and computation 11
Bidding in auctions 12
GameTheoryGametheory is the formal study of conflict and cooperation. Game theoretic concepts apply whenever the actions of several agents are interdependent. These agents may be individuals,
groups, firms, or any combination of these. The concepts of gametheory provide a language to formulate structure, analyze, and understand strategic scenarios.
The object of study in gametheory is the game, which is a formal model of an interactive situation. It typically involves several players; a game with only one player is usually called a decision problem. The formal definition lays out the players, their preferences, their information, the strategic actions available to them, and how these influence the...
... 2012 
 Application Of GameTheory to Business: Preliminary Findings for Term paper
Saurabh Mandhanya 11p164Rajat Barve 11p157Shashank Gupta 11p166Deepak Bansal 11P133Padmini Narayan 11p152Lizanne Marie Raphael 11P025 
[ The Kargil War: Analysis and Learning Through GameTheory ] 

Introduction
India and Pakistan have been involved in conflict over Kashmir since Independence. It has led to numerous wars and attacks. The relations and wars over Kashmir can be studied using GameTheory. Tit for Tat policy has been practiced by both nations. The pay of for wars for both countries has been changing depending on the context. This context has been based on many parameters –
1. Ally countries – US and China are widely regarded as Pakistan allies. China has been against India due to border issues. USSR has been traditionally supporting India until recently. The situation keeps on changing with changing stance of allies.
2. International support  International communities like UN tries to solve the conflict through negotiations.
3. Military strength – It keeps on changing depending upon development and purchase of weapons on both sides.
4. Resources including financial and others – India has always been in a relatively better position due to more available resources.
5. Leadership of both countries especially of Pakistan (Army Rule) – Army Rulers might...
...Assignment 2: Planning and Playing a Game
Objectives:
• Learn how individuals contribute to teamwork
• Experience some of the features of group work and teamwork
• Understand what managers and organizational developers do to transform
• groups into teams
• Articulate the tangible benefits (both quantitative and qualitative) of
• highperforming teams
• Finish with an interest in learning more about these concepts and
• techniques to apply what you learn
Background: For this assignment, you will plan and play a game with your family or friends, or at work based on the idea of the classic prisoner's dilemma. If you have had a class on gametheory, you will be well aware of this concept. It forms the basis of many TV game shows. The prisoner's dilemma was illustrated in Truman Capote's book, "In Cold Blood" concerning the 1959 robbery of a Kansas farmhouse by Perry Smith and Dick Hickock, who murdered their victims in order to eliminate the witnesses. After the men were captured, the police interrogated them separately. To get a confession, the police offered the men a reduced sentence for cooperating. Failure to cooperate would result in a death penalty charge for both.
In the prisoner's dilemma, if both parties cooperate they are mildly punished; if one betrays another, one is severely punished while the other goes free; and if both betray...
...use the normal approximation for the test statistic.
b) Carry out tests at both 5% and 1% levels using critical value approach and pvalue approach. Draw your conclusion.
c) Find the probability of type II error at p = 0.4.
7. Since the age of fairy tales, Jack has had the golden goose that laid golden eggs for him. However, since the start of the economic downturn, some of the eggs laid by the goose have been gilded silver eggs. Jack thinks that 60% of the eggs are still golden, but is worried that it may actually be even less.
To check that the proportion, say p, is not any less than 60%, he takes 10 eggs to the market, and gives them to a goldsmith for checking. He thinks that he has no cause of concern as long as the goldsmith reports at least six eggs to be pure gold.
a) State the null and alternative hypotheses for Jack’s problem, give a test statistic and the corresponding rejection criterion.
b) Compute the (exact) level of significance for this test.
c) What is the (exact) power of the test if p actually is only 50%?
8. In testing the hypotheses H0: µ = 5 versus Ha: µ < 5, suppose you get a pvalue of 0.026. Then you realize that the one sided alternative is too restrictive and redo the test with a two sided alternative i.e. Ha: µ ≠ 5.
a) Based on the new pvalue, what will be your conclusion (choose the correct alternative).
(i) Reject H0 at α = 0.01 but not at α = 0.05 or 0.1.
(ii) Reject H0 at α = 0.05 and α = 0.01 but not...
...GameTheory
The game begins with a case that occurred on two prisoners. Both prisoners were suspected criminals and their work. Both prisoners were placed in a different room, then to be given the question of whether it is true they are committing a crime or not. Option given is: If the prisoner A prisoner confessed while B does not confess, then A will be free, while B will get a 6 month sentence. If they plead not guilty, then it will get a 1 month prison sentence. And if both confess, they will each get a 3 month prison sentence.
Zerosum game
In gametheory and economic theory, a zero–sum game is a mathematical representation of a situation in which a participant's gain (or loss) of utility is exactly balanced by the losses (or gains) of the utility of the other participant(s). If the total gains of the participants are added up, and the total losses are subtracted, they will sum to zero.
Prisoners dilemma game is an archeptypal example of of a nonzero sum game.The distinction between a zero sum game and a nonzero sum game is crucial.In zero sum game,with two players for simplicity,the utilities of players always sum to zero wathever the game’s outcome.On certain simplifying assumption,a zero sum game is equivalent to a zero money sum game.In this circumstances,zero sum...
...Gametheory is defined as “the study of the ways in which strategic interactions among economic agents produce outcomeswith respect to thepreferences of those agents, where the outcomes in question might have been intended by none of the agents” by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Ross 1997). The disciplines most involved in gametheory “are mathematics, economics and the other social and behavioral sciences” (McCain 1997).Gametheory was created to confront the problem and provide a theory of economic and strategic behavior. In gametheory, "games" have always been a metaphor for more serious interactions in human society. But gametheory addresses the serious interactions using the metaphor of a game: in these serious interactions, as in games, the individual's choice is essentially a choice of a strategy, and the outcome of the interaction depends on the strategies chosen by each of the participants (McCain1997).
John von Neumann a great mathematician founded gametheory. The legend of John Von Neumann gives a good insight on who John Von Neumann was and his theory. John von Neumann was a child prodigy, born into a banking family in Budapest, Hungary, “when he was only six years old he could divide eightdigit numbers in his...
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