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1. Introduction
Galvor had been an independent company in the electronic industry of electronic measuring and test equipment since 1946, under the management of Mr. Latour, who was its founder and president. In 1974, Galvor was sold to Universal Electric (UE). Mr. Latour then became the chairman of the board of Galvor and Mr. Hennessy, from the UE, was deployed as Galvor's managing director. As parts of the transformation process from a small independent company to a part of a multinational corporation (MNC), Galvor had to change its planning and control system to comply with UE. 2. Planning and control system for Galvor as an independent company: The essential purpose of a company's planning and control system is to make managers think long-term strategically, to provide a framework for budgeting, to allocate resources, to facilitate communication and coordination among different departments, and to evaluate managers' performance. For an independent Galvor company, top management's needs were quite simple. Management was, in essence, a personal thing. Mr. Latour, was intimately familiar with most aspects of the business, such as production, marketing. He would handle all financial matters, even routine jobs, make pricing decisions, and exercise overall cost control. Moreover, as a founder and owner of the company, he had the motivation to work hard and think long term in the company best interest. Besides, in the small Galvor where there were relatively few employees and the chief executive knew all or most of them personally, compensation administration would be informal. Raises were ad hoc, and merit increases would be based on performance evaluation by impression rather than by explicit ratings on predetermined factors of performance. Thus Galvor would only need simple, informal, and less-staff planning and control practices. Everyone essentially reported to the president because it would prove efficient means of collecting input to make decisions. And the president would shudder at the thought of spending money on people who merely advise others. Specifically, the business plan itself should only cover a few years and should be flexible, not detailed. The business plan summary report should contain information on net income, sales, total assets, total capital employed, percentage return on sales, and return on total assets. Other items in the UE business plan should be combined into a summary strategic objectives and high level action that Galvor will pursue over the next two years to support the overall business planning objects, to include high level management actions, monthly report should focus mostly on reporting of problems areas an the prioritization of areas of concern. More importantly, control should be shared throughout functional areas rather than monopolized by finance. In addition there should be a qualitative balance between trust and control. 3. Planning and control system for Galvor as a part of an MNC Universal Electric: From UE's viewpoint, Galvor was a subsidiary of its multinational structure. Thus, there were substantial differences in the planning and control system. Firstly, communication and coordination was significantly needed as top management was remote from the business in Galvor. Senior managers, who were concerned with major strategic, organization, and policy issues, would not be able to monitor every division's day to day operations. Routine financial matters thus should be handled by financial department, and most pricing and cost control decisions were made far below the top. Thus, the more geographically wide and complicated structure and hierarchies call for effective communication and synchronization. Second, as ownership lost though the acquisition, so did commitment of Latour, as he wanted to devote himself to "family, philanthropic and general social interests", UE would need a tool to ensure sound behaviors. Third, not sole Galvor, but other 300 divisions were competing...
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