- 2 x 150 ml beaker
- sand paper
- Copper electrode
- Copper Nitrate
- M(1), M(2), M(3)
- Electrolyte couples matching the previous metals
- two cables connecting the electrodes with the voltmeter
- Paper towel
- Wash bottle
- Sodium Chloride
1. Clean the copper, M(1), M(2) and M(3) before starting the experiment. Sand with a fine grade sand paper to take off the outside coating. 2. Add 100 ml of one matching electrolyte with the matching metal electrode in one of the beakers. 3. Add 100 ml of copper nitrate with the copper electrode in another beaker. 4. Attach the electrodes to the voltmeter.
5. Roll a lengthy piece of paper towel and wet it with sodium chloride (salt bridge ) 6. Place each end of the salt bridge in the beakers. Make sure it’s dipped in the electrolyte solution. 7. Apparatus should be set as in the diagram below.
8. Keep spraying the salt bridge with sodium chloride to keep moist. 9. Record the voltmeter reading and observe clearly for any changes. 10. Repeat step 2 to 9 for metals 2 and 3.
11. Repeat experiment and calculate averages.
* Keep the variables controlled
* Ensure the metals are sand papered to a fine grade
* Use the same concentration of electrolyte solution 1 molar * Follow the method accurately
* Keep the salt bridge moist using a wash bottle
* Use the same voltmeter
* Ensure the wires or cables are in good shape
* Use different salt bridge for each metal and repetition Reliability:
Ensure that repetitions are done and averages are worked out. Do not include any results which seem way off. Compare results to real available data.