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Expert Systems with Applications
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/eswa
Fuzzy failure modes and effects analysis by using fuzzy TOPSIS-based fuzzy AHP ˘ Ahmet Can Kutlu a,⇑, Mehmet Ekmekçioglu b
Department of Industrial Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Macka, Istanbul 34367, Turkey Department of Production Planning, FORD OTOSAN, Golcuk, Izmit 41650, Turkey
a r t i c l e
Keywords: Fuzzy FMEA Fuzzy AHP Fuzzy TOPSIS
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a b s t r a c t
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a widely used engineering technique for designing, identifying and eliminating known and/or potential failures, problems, errors and so on from system, design, process, and/or service before they reach the customer (Stamatis, 1995). In a typical FMEA, for each failure modes, three risk factors; severity (S), occurrence (O), and detectability (D) are evaluated and a risk priority number (RPN) is obtained by multiplying these factors. There are signiﬁcant efforts which have been made in FMEA literature to overcome the shortcomings of the crisp RPN calculation. In this study a fuzzy approach, allowing experts to use linguistic variables for determining S, O, and D, is considered for FMEA by applying fuzzy ‘technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution’ (TOPSIS) integrated with fuzzy ‘analytical hierarchy process’ (AHP). The hypothetical case study demonstrated the applicability of the model in FMEA under fuzzy environment. Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a widely used engineering technique for designing, identifying and eliminating known and/or potential failures, problems, errors and so on from system, design, process, and/or service before they reach the customer (Stamatis, 1995). FMEA, providing a framework for cause and effect analysis of potential product failures (Chin, Chan, & Yang, 2008), has a purpose of prioritizing the risk priority number (RPN) of the product design or planning process to assign the limited resources to the most serious risk item (Chang, Wei, & Lee, 1999). FMEA, designed to provide information for risk management decision-making (Pillay & Wang, 2003), was ﬁrst developed as a formal design methodology by NASA in 1963 for their obvious reliability requirements and then, it was adopted and promoted by Ford Motor in 1977 (Chin et al., 2008). Since then, it has become a powerful tool extensively used for safety and reliability analysis of products and processes in a wide range of industries especially, aerospace, nuclear and automotive industries (Gilchrist, 1993; Sharma, Kumar, & Kumar, 2005). A typical FMEA is consisted of the following components; the identiﬁcation and listing of failure modes and the consequent faults, assessment of the chances of the occurrence of faults, then assessment of the chances of the detection of faults, assessment of the severity of the consequences of the faults, calculation of a measure of the risk, the ranking of the faults based on the risk, ⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 212 2931300x211; fax: +90 212 2407260. E-mail addresses: email@example.com (A.C. Kutlu), firstname.lastname@example.org ˘ (M. Ekmekçioglu). 0957-4174/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2011.06.044
taking action on the high-risk problems, and checking the effectiveness of the action with the use of a revised risk measurement (Ben-Daya & Raouf, 1996). Each failure mode can be evaluated by three factors as severity, likelihood of occurrence, and the difﬁculty of detection of the failure mode. In a typical FMEA evaluation, a number between 1 and 10 (with 1 being the best and 10 being the worst case) is given for each of the three factors. By multiplying the values for severity (S), occurrence (O), and detectability (D), a risk priority number (RPN) is...