Axia College of University of Phoenix
Future of Modernization
No matter which modern theorist one chooses to believe, modernization is an ever present and ever growing occurrence in modern society. Modernization can be seen from the smallest village in Indonesia to the sprawling metropolises of America. An excerpt from “France and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History (Modernization, 2005) suggests, “ The process of modernization is seen to encompass such trends as urbanization, secularization, the development of mass production and consumption, the growth of bureaucracy, and the emergence of a large managerial middle class.” Emile Durkheim was a French sociologist who felt that modernization occurred because of an increase in “specialized economic activity” (Macionis, 2006). His theory suggests that in years past, the traditional members of society all shared the same activities. Tasks such as farming, fishing, and cooking, gathering wood and gathering water were many of the shared activities of a community in the past centuries. Today, in modern United States society, members of society perform highly specialized duties and roles. No longer do members of society share activities. In fact, a common phrase amongst citizens of The United States is “that is not my job.” A business may have ten employees yet they all perform different duties. One employee is the boss, the next may be a secretary, and yet another is a janitor. In American society, it would be rare to see either the boss or the secretary sweep a floor or take out their own garbage. To meet the demands of the ever increasing secularization of society, The United States has mandated an increase in levels of schooling and the development of “increasingly sophisticated and accessible” (Modernization Theory, 2000) forms of transportation and communication systems. These secularized mandates have forced citizens of the United States to obtain secondary...