BACK GROUND OF CORRUPTION
The culture of corruption was promoted by the administration of colonial era through the award of lands, titles and jobs to a specific group supporting colonial objectives as part of political bribery. Till the Second World War, corruption was prevalent in considerable measure amongst Revenue, Police, Excise and Public Works Department officials, particularly of the lower grades while the higher ranks were comparatively free from this evil. By the time of Independence in 1947, increase in corruption by public officials became much noticeable. In Pakistan, white-collar crime had its roots in the 1950s, starting from settlement of refugee claims, industrial sanctions, allotment of agricultural lands etc; all used as mechanics of money making, giving rise to rampant corruption.
KEY CORRUPTION ISSUES IN PAKISTAN
1) Post independence settlement of refugees and allocation of properties. Evacuee Property led to the start of corruption seeping into Pakistan society surreptitiously spreading its tentacles everywhere.
2) The interventionist economic policies and wide discretionary Powers (liquid petroleum gas quotas & textile quotas) tempted public officials into criminal acts.
3) Inadequate compensation to civil servants and "Demonstration Effect" induced by the corporate salaries and remittances from Gulf countries is another contributory factor to corruption.
4) Excessive aid flows over the years and the reluctance of international funding agencies to tackle corruption in Social sector programmes, which are directed at less visible outputs also became victim of this menace. A large number of projects in the social sectors have been mere exercises in paper pushing. In the 1980s Pakistan received a major portion of its aid in the form of grants and these funds served to line many a pocket.
5) Exorbitant valuation inland acquisition of major projects led to huge increases in project... [continues]
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