Fundamentals of Personalities

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1. Introduction

The aim of this essay is to name and identify the various theories of personality as well as explain the theoretical concepts within these theories. The assignment will also cover the similarities and differences within the two theories. It is also shown that the two theoretical approaches of personality chosen will be discussed by explaining the structure within the personality theory, the methods of gathering data and the strengths and weaknesses of the two theories. The theories that will be discussed are Psychoanalytic personality theory and Neo-analytic personality theory. Psychoanalytic personality theory is based on the works of Sigmund Freud in which he stated that it is a basic approach to understand personality. Psychoanalytic theory refers to the definition and dynamics of personality development which motivate and guide psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapy. First laid out by Sigmund Freud, psychoanalytic theory has undergone many refinements since his work. Freud had ceased his analysis of the brain and his physiological studies and shifted his focus to the study of the mind and the related psychological qualities making up the mind, and on treatment using free association and the phenomena of transference. His study gave emphasis to the acknowledgment of childhood events that could potentially influence the mental functioning of adults. His examination of the genetic and then the developmental aspects gave the psychoanalytic theory its characteristics. The Neo-Analytic theory usually includes such theorists as Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, and Erik Erikson. Essentially this school of thought is an attempt to extend and modernize the theories of Freud. Neo-analytic thinkers acknowledge the role of the unconscious in influencing behavior, their focus of study is more on the conscious self as a person develops and grows, and has to interact both with the demands of external reality and inner struggles with emotions, and drives, and desires. The ego has various functions and abilities, such as cognition, drive delay, memory, and other adaptive functions (like learning). Many of the phenomena studied by experimental psychologists, such as memory and learning, belong to the province of the ego as understood from the ego analytic point of view. 2. Structures within the personality theories

Psycho-analytic theory
Psychoanalytic theory was developed by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Psychoanalytic theory transformed the understanding of mental life and human behaviour. Freud's theories helped in understanding early development of sexuality and mental functioning in the infant and adult psychological illnesses and became more interested in neurology and psychiatry. The unconscious is the part of the mind in which it is difficult to get to to the typical conscious thought therefore Freud moved away from hypnosis and introduced techniques of free association, which is the spontaneous, free flowing association of thoughts and frames of mind and dream analysis. He recognised that people were not in touch with their inner encounters, which caused them to gain psychological stress and physical suffering. According to Freud, the unconscious continues to influence our behaviour and understanding, even though we are unaware of these underlying influences. Dreams allow us to explore the unconscious, according to Freud; they are "the 'royal road' to the unconscious". Dreams consist of two aspects namely, latent and manifest content. Latent content is the fundamental implication of a dream that may not be remembered when a person wakes up; the manifest content is the content from the dream that a person remembers when they wake up and can be analysed by a psychoanalytic psychologist. Exploring and understanding the manifest content of dreams can inform the individual of complexes or disorders that may be under the surface of their personality. Dreams can provide access to the unconscious...
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