Carper, B. A. (2006). Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. In W.K. Cody,
(Ed). Philosophical and theoretical perspectives for advanced nursing practice
(p.p.19-26). (4th ed). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
In this chapter (Carper, 2006) looks at the patterns of knowing. What does it really mean to know? The author looks at what kinds of knowledge is valued, and who values that knowledge.There are four fundamental components; (1) the empirics of nursing, looks at providing explanation for a phenomena and systematically giving relevance to those phenomena. (2) Esthetics of nursing refers to the art of nursing. There seems to be much discord with the descriptor in terms of “the art” of nursing. It is viewed by Weitz, as complicated and too open for one definition of esthetic theory to exist. Esthetic knowing is expressive in nature. It refers to the creativity and openness of discovery within the development of new knowledge. Weidenbach referred to the action taken for the patient that would change behavior is the visible component that validates the action taken by the nurse. Empathy is a central component in the esthetic process. Orem looks at the art of nursing as the ability of the individual nurse to utilize creative and expressive actions that provide satisfying and effective patient outcomes. (3) Personal knowledge has been identified as the most challenging and often problematic to overcome. It is difficult to teach because it involves the relationship and interactions the nurse develops with patient. It is impacted by the view of an individual self. It is believed the experienced nurse has a heightened awareness of subjective views that will allow for empathetic understanding in the lives of others. Personal knowledge gives rise to subjective, and concrete knowledge brought to the relationship it requires acceptance of others and their personal...