Finance function is the most important function of a business. Finance is, closely, connected with production, marketing and other activities. In the absence of finance, all these activities come to a halt. In fact, only with finance, a business activity can be commenced, continued and expanded. Finance exists everywhere, be it production, marketing, human resource development or undertaking research activity. Understanding the universality and importance of finance, finance manager is associated, in modern business, in all activities as no activity can exist without funds. Financial Decisions or Finance Functions are closely inter-connected. All decisions mostly involve finance. When a decision involves finance, it is a financial decision in a business firm. In all the following financial areas of decision-making, the role of finance manager is vital. We can classify the finance functions or financial decisions into four major groups: (A) Investment Decision or Long-term Asset mix decision
(B) Finance Decision or Capital mix decision
(C) Liquidity Decision or Short-term (current) asset mix decision (D) Dividend Decision or Profit allocation decision
(A) Investment Decision
Investment decisions relate to selection of assets in which funds are to be invested by the firm. Investment alternatives are numerous. Resources are scarce and limited. They have to be rationed and discretely used. Investment decisions allocate and ration the resources among the competing investment alternatives or opportunities. The effort is to find out the projects, which are acceptable. Investment decisions relate to the total amount of assets to be held and their composition in the form of fixed and current assets. Both the factors influence the risk the organization is exposed to. The more important aspect is how the investors perceive the risk. The investment decisions result in purchase of assets. Assets can be classified, under two broad categories: (i)...