Functionalism Theory is the oldest, and still the dominant, theoretical perspective in sociology and many other social sciences. This perspective is built upon twin emphases: claim of the scientific method to the objective social world and use of an analogy between the individual person and society. The emphasis on scientific method leads to the declaration that one can study the social world in the same ways as one study the physical world. Thus, Functionalists see the social world as "objectively real," as observable with such techniques as social surveys and discussions. To better understand Functionalism Theories is best to examine it from these perspectives. This paper will explore those perspectives.
In between 1904 and 1913, psychologists around the world question the makeup of psychology as a science. Amazingly a large number of publications address this question. One of the articles “The Conceptions and Methods of Psychology” (Cattell, 1906) by James Cattell McKeen try to explained the phenomena of psychology. Cattell trained at Leipzig with Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) and in London with Francis Galton (1822-1911), as a leader among experimentalists Cattell introduced experimental psychology to Bryn Mawr College, the University of Pennsylvania, and Columbia University and co-founded the influential Psychological Review.
At his presentation in St. Louis, Cattell particularly favorable position to assess the state of the art in psychology, and he did so in no uncertain terms: he said, “Psychology has never had a well defined territory. As states of consciousness appear to be less stable and definite than the objects of the material world, so the science of psychology is more shifting in its contests and more uncertain in it is methods than any science. We are told, indeed, in our introductory textbooks that psychology is the science of mind, and that mind and matter are the most diverse things in... [continues]
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