Functional Styles

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  • Topic: Verb, Grammatical number, Grammar
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CriteriaScientific prose styleOratorical sub-stylePublicistic styles Pragmatic aimto prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the internal laws of existence, development, relations between different phenomena. is to exert influence on public opinion, to convince the listener that the interpretation given by the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the speech not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as well.to exert influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the speech, essay or article not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as well Situation of applicationThe genre of scientific works is mostly characteristic of the written form of language (scientific articles, monographs or textbooks), but it may also be found in its oral form (in scientific reports, lectures, discussions at conferences, etc.)The oratorical sub- style is used in public speeches on political and social problems of the day, in orations and addresses on solemn occasions as public weddings, funerals and jubilees, in sermons and debates and also in the speeches of counsel and judges in courts of law.The publicistic style is used in public speeches and printed public works which are addressed to a broad audience and devoted to important social or political events, public problems of cultural or moral character. Phonological featuresA group of some learned words drawn from the Romance languages and, though fully adapted to the English phonetic system, some of them continue to sound singularly foreign. Their very sound seems to create complex associations: deleterious, emollient, incommodious, meditation, illusionary.Use of exclamations to attract listener’s attention. Use of a strong rhythm and a clear rising + falling intonation sequence, convey a sense of rhetorical power, structural control, and semantic completeness. They are widely used in formal writing. And they are especially common in political speeches, where the third item provides a climax of expression which can act as a cue for applause.Use of exclamations to attract listener’s attention. Semantic featuresSemantic accuracy. Words are used in their primary logical meaning. Hardly a single word will be found here which is used in more than one meaning. Nor will there be any words with contextual meaning. Even the possibility of ambiguity is avoided.The stylistic devices employed in the oratorical style are determined by the conditions of communication. An antithesis is framed by parallel constructions, which, in their turn, are accompanied by repetition, while a climax can be formed by repetitions of different kinds.The stylistic devices employed in the oratorical style are determined by the conditions of communication. An antithesis is framed by parallel constructions, which, in their turn, are accompanied by repetition, while a climax can be formed by repetitions of different kinds. Grammatical featuresnominal character ( the predominance of nouns over verbs) in the use of parts of speech, the use of prepositional “of-phrases” to substitute the genitive case, transposition of the classes of nouns, wide use of the Passive Voice, Indefinite Tenses, specialization of pronouns in demonstrative and intensification functions, numerous conjunctions revealing the logical order of the text as well as double conjunctions ( not merely... but also, whether ... or both... and, as...as), adverbs of logical connection ;Use of the 1st person pronoun we; 2nd person pronoun you: We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness…(Th. Jefferson, The Declaration...
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