With aid of annotated diagrams, discuss the relationship between the structure and function of four specialised human cells.
The human body is made up of trillions of different cells; all play a huge role in the running and function of the body. They are the foundation of all living things. Each different cell has its own exclusive job. Without cells the human body would simply fail. All cells contain organelles which are the structures of the cells itself, organelles have individual functions. This essay will investigate the structure and function of four cells and how they contribute to the performance of the human body.
Sperm cells, also known as spermatozoon are reproductive cells. The main function is to fertilize the ovum. At the head of the sperm is a large nucleus surrounded by acrosome, the acrosome covers the head of the sperm, when the ovum is reached the acrosome releases hydrolytic enzymes to break through the egg wall. The nucleus is where all genetic information and enzymes are and half of the 23 chromosomes. One pair coming from the sperm cell and the other from the mother, these are called homologous pairs. The acrosome releases an enzyme which helps penetrate the egg cell membrane. ‘The sperm cell consists of a head, a midpiece and a tail. The head contains the nucleus with densely coiled chromatin fibres, surrounded anteriorly by an acrosome, which contains enzymes used for penetrating the female egg’. (News-medical, 2012). The neck of the sperm contains centrioles which form the structure of the flagella also known as the tail of the sperm. The flagellum creates movement in order to swim to the ovum. The flagellum is composed of microtubules, with proteins known as axoneme. Axoneme is the core of the flagella, it has two centrial filaments and is enclosed by nine other pairs which motor movement. The... [continues]
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