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Form-Focused and Meaning-Focused Instruction on ESL Learners 1

SAMPLE THESIS Form-Focused and Meaning-Focused Instruction on ESL Learners Students Name University Date

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Form-Focused and Meaning-Focused Instruction on ESL Learners 2 Table of Contents 1.0. Chapter 1. Introduction……………….……………………………………………………3 1.2. Background of the Study………..……………………………………………………………6 1.3. Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………………..8 1.4. Summary……………………………………………………………………………………10 2.0. Chapter.2 Literature Review……………………………………………………………...11 2.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….11 2.2. Theoretical Background……………………………………………………………………..11 2.2.1. A brief overview………………………………………………………………………..…12 2.3. Input Hypothesis…………………………………………………………………………….16 2.4. Interaction Hypothesis………………………………………………………………………19 2.5. Focus on Form………………………………………………………………………………24 2.6. Focus on Meaning …………………………………………………………………………..29 2.7. Form and Meaning Focused Input…………………………………………………………..33 2.8. Summary……………………………………………………………………………………40 3.0. Chapter 3. Methodology…………………………………………………………………...42 3.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….42 3.2. ESL Composition Profile……………………………………………………………………46 3.3. Population and Sampling …………………………………………………………………...47 3.4. Limitations of the Study……………………………………………………………………..48 4.0. Chapter 4. Findings………………………………………………………………………..49 5.0. Chapter 5. Discussion……………………………………………………………………...57 5.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….57 5.2. Developing Writing Competence…………………………………………………………..58 5.3. Task Based Methodology…………………………………………………………………..60 5.4. The Role of Feedback…………………………………………………………………….…61 5.5. Prompts and Recasts…………………………………………………………………….…..62 6.0. Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………………64 6.1. Meaning Focused Input……………………………………………………………………..64 6.2. Implicit and Explicit Learning………………………………………………………………65 6.3. Form-Focused Instruction…………………………………………………………………...65 References……………………………………………………………………………………….68 www.mastersthesiswriting.com

Form-Focused and Meaning-Focused Instruction on ESL Learners 3 CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Introduction Language learning and acquisition is not an abstract process of memorizing vocabulary and the application of grammatical rules. On the contrary, a complex process involves an intricate interaction between the distinct personalities of the learners, the teacher and his or her actions and intentions and the overall leaning process. The language learning process is also interplay of learners’ background, culture, experience beliefs, perceptions and learning environment. In this case, instruction methodology plays a crucial role in how a second language is acquired, and whether the language learner acquires adequate skills to communicate effectively in the second language, both orally and in writing. SLA studies recognizes word, task, learner and learning conditions as factors that either promote or discourage word learning. Scheffler (2008) observes that task based instruction (TBI) is founded on the hypothesis that interaction in communication enhances language acquisition and pushes the process forward. This usually integrates meaning-based activities and with formfocused activities that occur incidentally. Those who support tasked-based instruction method are opposed to structural syllabus model as a way of developing proficiency in L2 because in their view, the conventional methods do not adhere to the process of natural language learning, (Long & Robinson, 1998). For adult language learners, the natural language learning process implies acquiring L2 similar to the acquisition process of other cognitive abilities. This is beginning from an explicit declarative representation and the accumulation of a sufficient number of entities to perform the skill (Scheffler, 2008, p. 300). One main difference between the cognitive abilities of adults and children is that adults have a mechanism for resolving problems, which in...
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